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SLEEP. EEG Patterns: Measuring Brain Activity. The Stages of Sleep: Slow Wave Sleep (SWS). STAGE 1: Drowsy; alpha activity; easily awakened STAGE 2: Sleep spindles; sound asleep, but easily awakened

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the stages of sleep slow wave sleep sws
The Stages of Sleep: Slow Wave Sleep (SWS)
  • STAGE 1: Drowsy; alpha activity; easily awakened
  • STAGE 2: Sleep spindles; sound asleep, but easily awakened
  • STAGE 3:Delta Waves (20-50% of record); hard to wake up; decrease in blood pressure, body temp, muscle tone, heart rate
  • STAGE 4: Deep Sleep; almost continuous Delta Waves; difficult to wake up; seldom move
the stages of sleep rem sleep
The Stages of Sleep: REM Sleep
  • Rapid Eye Movements
  • Vivid Dreaming
  • Paradoxical Sleep: Brain Wave Patterns look alert; Theta Wave Spikes in record
  • Complete loss of muscle tone
theories of rem sleep dreaming
Theories of REM Sleep & Dreaming
  • Freudian Theory (Manifest vs. Latent Content)
  • Activation-Synthesis Theory (Cortex tries to make sense of random brain activity)
  • Neurocognitive Theory (Dreams are the result of thinking under unusual circumstances)
why do we sleep
Why Do We Sleep?
  • We don’t really know, but some theories:
    • Brain Development; Solidify information from the day
    • Repair & Restoration Theory: Restore homeostasis to brain chemistry
    • Evolutionary or Energy Conservation Theory: We sleep to conserve energy & avoid danger
effects of sleep deprivation
Effects of Sleep Deprivation
  • No major effects up until 24 hours
  • Depression, lethargy, decline on task performance, especially vigilance tasks
  • Prolonged deprivation (>120 hours) can lead to hallucinations & psychotic behavior
  • Repeated REM deprivation leads to irritability
  • Metabolic processes remain largely unaffected
sleep disorders
Sleep Disorders
  • Insomnia
  • Narcolepsy
  • Cataplexy
  • Sleep Apnea
  • Night Terrors, Sleep Walking
  • Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
    • (Restless Leg Syndrome)
routes to altered states of consciousness
Routes to Altered States of Consciousness
  • Drugs
  • Meditation
  • Hypnosis
  • Nonchemical Environmental Pathways
sweat lodges
Sweat Lodges

Navajo Sweat Lodge

Crow Sweat Lodge

factors that may be operating in extreme or unusual environments
Factors that May be Operating in Extreme or Unusual Environments

*Intense or Novel Sensory Stimulation

*Trauma from Accidents

*Weightlessness, Pressure Changes

*Extreme Temperatures or Hypothermia

*Restricted Vision, Hearing, Smell

*Lack of Social Stimulation

*Monotonous Sensory Stimulation from Landscapes or


the sensed presence
The Sensed Presence

A perception or feeling that another

Person is present, usually to help.

Can range from a vague feeling to

A flesh & blood entity

May be a god, spirit, ancestor,

Or person known to observer.

why does a sensed presence appear
Why Does a Sensed Presence Appear?
  • Motion of Boats
  • Atmospheric/Geomagnetic Activity
  • Changes in brain chemistry triggered by:
    • Stress
    • Lack of oxygen
    • Monotonous stimulation
    • Buildup of hormones
  • Shifting of attention from external, ambient stimuli to internal information we have less experience processing.