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Academic writing i. Class 19 May 7, 2013. Today. Introduction to business writing - Differences b/w Academic and Business writing - Business Writing Structure - Business Writing Language. Some kinds of writing. Text-messaging a friend Writing a note to a friend

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academic writing i

Academic writing i

Class 19

May 7, 2013

today
Today

Introduction to business writing

- Differences b/w Academic and Business writing

- Business Writing Structure

- Business Writing Language

some kinds of writing
Some kinds of writing

Text-messaging a friend

Writing a note to a friend

Writing an e-mail to a professor

Writing in a journal

Writing an essay for class

Writing a research paper

Inviting a guest speaker to your class

Introducing a new product to a client

Informal/casual

formal

Informal or slightly formal

Formal - academic

Formal – business

business writing purpose
Business writing - Purpose

Business writing may be used to:

- make an inquiry.

- make a complaint.

- introduce or promote a product.

- apologize

- apply for a job

- give an update on a project

academic writing vs business writing
Academic Writing vs. Business Writing

Academic Writing:

- No personal pronouns (I, my, we, you, etc.)

- No contractions (can’t, don’t, wouldn’t)

- ‘Academic’ vocabulary give – provide, but – however, just – simply

- Objective, ‘academic’ tone (neutral)

- Written for a general audience (‘the reader’)

Source: www.joeydevilla.com

academic writing vs business writing1
Academic Writing vs. Business Writing

Terry, from the accounting department

Business Writing:

- Personal pronouns are often necessary i.e., “I am writing to inform you about next week’s meeting…”

- Contractions still avoided

- More direct, action-oriented vocabulary

- Usually uses a formal & positive tone

- Written for a specific person or group

Source: thegotya.blogspot.com

business writing
Business writing

One important aspect of business writing:

-It usually represents a direct communication between one person and another.

- For example, a business letter is usually addressed specifically to someone (not writing for a “general reader”).

i.e., Dear Mrs. Kim, I am writing to request some information about your company’s latest product…

business writing1
Business writing

Because it is a direct communication,

The writer (you) can take the recipient’s needs into account.

When writing a business letter, ask yourself:

“How would I feel if I received this letter?”

business writing2
Business writing

“How would I feel if I received this letter?”

- This helps highlight an important feature of “”Business English”.

 Try to be as positive as possible (even in relatively negative situations).

- Being overly negative does not help any business.

slide11

Dear Mr. Kim,

You didn’t get into our school. Your grades were too low, and your interview was bad.

We here at Keimyung Adams College insist on only accepting high-quality applicants into our school. However, you are not a high-quality applicant.

It would be better if you applied to another university. Good luck with your applications.

Sincerely,

Dr. KAC

President, Keimyung Adams College

slide13

Dear Mr. Kim,Thank you for having expressed an interest in the Keimyung Adams College). The Admissions Committee has given careful consideration to your application.The Committee regrets to inform you that we are unable to offer you a place in our first year class. You have been a competitive applicant; however, we have had many similarly qualified students applying for admissions. Therefore, many desirable candidates have been turned away.We thank you for your interest in our college and wish you success in your future endeavors.

Sincerely,

Dr. KAC

President, Keimyung Adams College

examples differences
Examples - Differences?

In the second letter:

The tone remains optimistic despite the negative message being delivered.

- “Thank you for having expressed an interest…”

 First, the writer thanks the recipient.

- “The Committee regrets to inform you…”

 This has an apologetic tone, which is more positive than “You didn’t get in.”

language used in business writing
Language used in business writing

A letter that sounds impersonal and unfriendly can damage the image of an organization

(even if just in the eyes of one or a few potential clients).

On the other hand, a thoughtful, sincere letter (even if it is delivering negative news) can greatly enhance an organization’s image.

process of writing a business letter
Process of writing a business letter
  • Establish your purpose (application? Apology? Rejection?)
  • Consider the reader’s needs.
  • Prepare an outline.
  • Rough draft.
  • “Cooling period”. - After writing a business letter (especially a negative one), it is good to walk away from the rough draft, even for a short time, then come back to it.- This can help you if any overly emotional or inappropriate statements made it into the letter.
  • Revise rough draft. - As always, you want to check it over carefully.
process of writing a business letter1
Process of writing a business letter

2. Consider the reader’s needs.

Think about these things:

- What is your purpose for this letter? - Who are you writing to? - A potential client? - A business partner? - An important customer?

- What are the potential outcomes of this letter?

Remember: “How would I feel if I received this letter?”

slide19

Return address(your address)

Recipient’s name and address

- Full name

- Job title

- Address line 1

- Address line 2

- Address line 3

Salutation (greeting)

“Dear ______”

Complementary closing

(Closing salutation)

Sincerely,

signature

Sender’s nameTitle

body

structure of business letters
Structure of business letters

In summary:

1. Sender’s + Recipient’s information (name, address, title)

2. Salutation

3. Body

4. Closing salutation

salutation
Salutation

Begin with “Dear _____ : “

Use Mr. or Ms. (Or Dr.) before the receiver’s name.

- Dear Ms. Jones: - Dear Dr. Kim:

Use “Dear Sir or Madam:” if you don’t know who you are writing to.

Or, address the letter to the position you are contacting.

“Dear Personnel Director:”

body paragraphs
Body paragraphs

Body paragraph 1:

- Purpose: State the main point of the letter.

- Begin with a friendly opening, then quickly transition to the purpose of the letter.

- Does not need a lot of detail.

body paragraphs1
Body paragraphs

Main point of the letter:

“I am writing to…

…inquire about (“I am writing to inquire about the position posted in The Korean Herald.”)

…apologize for (“I am writing to apologize for the difficulties you experienced last week at our branch.”)

… confirm

… comment on

… apply for

body paragraphs2
Body paragraphs

Body paragraph 2:

- Purpose: State the supporting details to justify your purpose.

- May be background information, statistics, etc.

body paragraphs3
Body paragraphs

Closing paragraph:

- Restate your purpose and why it is important.

- End with what you want to happen next:

- “What do you want the reader to do? - request an action, show appreciation, encourage further contact.

i.e., I look forward to working with you. I will see you all at tomorrow’s meeting. Please contact me at 010-1111-1111 if you have any questions.

body paragraphs4
Body paragraphs
  • Sometimes, 3 paragraphs are not necessary.
  • Sometimes, more than 3 are necessary.
  • Depends on the situation.
closing salutation
Closing salutation
  • Sincerely,
  • Best regards,

Sincerely,

George Jefferson

George Jefferson

President, Jefferson College

Remember a comma after the salutation!

language used in business writing2
Language used in business writing

A letter that sounds impersonal and unfriendly can damage the image of an organization

(even if just in the eyes of one or a few potential clients).

On the other hand, a thoughtful, sincere letter (even if it is delivering negative news) can greatly enhance an organization’s image.

language used in business writing3
Language used in business writing

Business letters usually use formal language.

Be polite!

(Remember: “How would I feel if I received this?”)

language in business writing example
Language in business writing - Example

Suppose you are a department store manager who receives a request for a refund from a customer who forgot to include the receipt with the request.

- In a letter to the customer, you might write:

language in business writing example1
Language in business writing - Example

“The sales receipt must be enclosed with the merchandise before we can process the refund.”

However, if you consider how you might keep the goodwill of the customer, you might word the request this way:

“Please enclose the sales receipt with the merchandise, so that we can send your refund promptly.”

language in business writing example2
Language in business writing - Example

Notice that the second version - uses the word please (polite)

- uses the active voice (“Please enclose the sales receipt”) *The first version uses the passive voice (“The sales receipt must be enclosed”).

In general, the active voice creates a friendlier, more courteous tone than the passive, which tends to sound impersonal and unfriendly. Polite wording, such as the use of please, also helps to create goodwill

language used in business writing4
Language used in business writing

Active Voice vs. Passive Voice

Active voice:

-creates a friendlier, more courteous tone than the passive.

i.e., Johncalled the company yesterday.

Passive voice:

- tends to sound impersonal and unfriendly.

i.e., The company was called by John, yesterday.

language used in business writing examples
Language used in business writing - Examples

Be respectful, not demanding:

CHANGE:

Submit your answer in one week.

TO:

I would appreciate receiving your answer within one week.

language used in business writing examples1
Language used in business writing - Examples

Be Modest, not Arrogant.

CHANGE: My report is thorough, and I am sure that you would not be able to continue efficiently without it.

TO:

I have tried to be as thorough as possible in my report, and I hope you find it useful.

language used in business writing examples2
Language used in business writing - Examples

Be polite, not sarcastic.

CHANGE:

I just received the shipment we ordered six month ago. I am sending it back – we cannot use it now. Thanks!

TO:

I am returning the shipment we ordered on March 12, 2013. Unfortunately, it arrived too late for us to be able to use it.

language used in business writing examples3
Language used in business writing - Examples
  • Be positive, not negative.

CHANGE:

Your complaint about our prices is way off target. Our prices are definitely not any higher than those of our competitors.

TO:

Thank you for your suggestion concerning our prices. We believe, however, that our prices are competitive with, and in some cases below, those of our competitors.

journal assignment
Journal Assignment

Download the sample business letter in the “Homework” section of the website.

- Re-write the letter in more polite language.

- Use http://www.learn-english-today.com/business-english/business-letters.html

to help you.

Deadline: Thursday (bring to class)

paper 3 write a business letter
Paper 3 – write a business letter

1. The university has approved your request for a guest speaker. Write an invitation letter asking Aaron Rodgers, the public relations director of the company you are researching to speak in class next week.

2. You are researching a company for your business class assignment. Write to Cynthia Lennon, the public relations director of the company you are researching, and ask for information about her company.

3. You are a sales representative for your company. Write a letter to Paul Coffey of Real Big Enterprises introducing one of your new products or services. Remember to give important details about your product (or service).

paper 3 write a business letter1
Paper 3 – write a business letter

You will notice that the only information given is the context for the letter, and the name and position of the recipient.

You will create the rest of the information yourself.

i.e., what kind of company you are writing to, what your product is (option 3), etc.

It will be very useful to make an outline first!!

paper 3 write a business letter2
Paper 3 – write a business letter

Instructions:

Choose ONE of the options.

Do a search on the website link for the kind of business letter you are writing.

Write a business letter.

Deadlines: First Draft: Sunday (May 12, 11:59 p.m.) Final Draft: Tuesday (May 14, 11:59 p.m.)