Warm up page 5
1 / 59

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Warm up – Page 5. What are the 3 stages of memory? What is encoding? What are the 5 different ways we encode info? Class- Demos 4 and 5. Part 2 Sensory Memory Short Term Memory Long Term Memory. Part 2. Storage:Sensory Memory.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - basil-turner

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Warm up page 5
Warm up – Page 5

  • What are the 3 stages of memory?

  • What is encoding?

  • What are the 5 different ways we encode info?

  • Class- Demos 4 and 5

Part 2

Part 2

Sensory Memory

Short Term Memory

Long Term Memory

Part 2

Storage sensory memory
Storage:Sensory Memory

Sensory Memory:refers to the initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. All information is held here briefly(1/2 to 4 seconds)

  • Filter system- figures out if the stimuli is important

    Sensory Memories include both:

  • Iconic Memory: a momentary sensory memory of a visual stimuli. Memory only lasts for a few tenths of a second.

  • Echoic Memory:a momentary sensory memory for auditory stimuli. Sound memories can usually last up to 3 or 4 seconds.

    Sensory memory is very hard to measure since it fades as we try to measure it.

  • Warm up page 5




    Warm up page 5




    Warm up page 5




    Warm up page 5




    Warm up page 5




    Warm up page 5




    Warm up page 5




    How does sensory memory get processed into memory
    How Does Sensory Memory Get Processed Into Memory?

    • Sensory memories disappear unless you focus your selective attention on the information.

    • Attention causes information to be further processed.

    • Rehearse things and make them relevant and meaningful to yourself

      • Only way to get info into short term and then eventually into long term memory storage

    Storage short term memory
    Storage: Short Term Memory

    • Peterson Study

      • Demo 2

        • 1. You want to remember TXL

        • 2. Start counting backwards from 100 by 3s

        • 3. After 5 seconds write the trigram on your activity sheet

          Remember LTS

        • 4. After 20 seconds write the trigram on your activity sheet

        • 5. Why did you forget the trigram as time goes on

    • If you don’t rehearse info. it goes away

    Storage short term memory1
    Storage: Short Term Memory

    • STM- has a limited capacity and duration

      • Couple seconds

      • 7 +/- 2

  • Remember random digits better than random letters

  • Remember things we hear better than things we see

  • If you use chunking, rehearsal and self reference you will remember things longer

  • Only through rehearsal and or self reference do short-term memories become long term memories.

  • Is long term memory like an attic
    Is Long Term Memory Like an Attic?

    • Sherlock Holmes: “I consider that a man’s brain is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose…It is a mistake to think that that little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it, there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget something you knew before.”

    • Is this true?

    Storage long term memory
    Storage- Long Term Memory

    • Average adult has a billion bits of info in their memory

    • If you don’t properly encode info, it becomes hard to recall

      • We don’t always encode info correctly

  • LTM= limitless capacity

  • Rajan Mahadeva = Pi experiment

  • Demo 3
    Demo 3

    • 2 1 6 9 6 4 6 1 5 1 9 9 7 2 5 2 4 6 8 0 1 2 9 6 1 6 0 8 9 4

    • 4-6 average

    • 10-19 extraordinary

    • 20-30 brilliant

    So where are memories stored
    So Where Are Memories Stored?

    • Karl Lashley searched for the brain “engram,” physical “memory trace” in rats after they had run mazes from 1920 to 1955.

    • Lashley believed:

    • Learning was NOT localized, all parts of cortex worked together and as a whole.

    Neural basis and emotional impact for memory
    Neural Basis and Emotional Impact For Memory

    • Long Term Potentiation (LTP): refers to the long-lasting strengthening of the connection between 2 neurons. Is believed to be the neural basis for learning and memory.

    • Process occurs naturally when we learn through association…after learning has occurred, neurons involved in process become more efficient at transmitting the signals.

    • Drugs that block LTP affect learning drastically.

    • Strong emotions make for stronger memories

      • Stress hormones boost impact on learning.

    Storage loss amnesia
    Storage Loss: Amnesia

    • Amnesiarefers to the loss of memory.

      • Depending on the damage or disease different kinds of memories can be damaged

    • Amnesiac patients typically have losses in explicit memory.

    • Explicit Memory (declarative memory): memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare.

      • My birthday is ………

      • Napoleon is…………

    Hippocampus s role in explicit memory
    Hippocampus’s Role in Explicit Memory

    • Hippocampus: neural center located in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage….left and right hippocampus have different effects.

    Hippocampus s role in explicit memory1
    Hippocampus’s Role in Explicit Memory

    • Names, images and events

    • Damage to the Left= trouble with verbal info.

    • Damage to Right= visual designs and locations

    • Different parts of the brain house different memories

    • Monkeys with Hippocampus damage had old memories that remained intact

    Implicit memory
    Implicit Memory

    • Other type of memory storage is known as:

    • Implicit Memory (Procedural Memory): retention of things without conscious recollection. Is Skill Memory.

      • Walking

      • Riding a bike

      • Soccer

    Cerebellum s role in implicit memory
    Cerebellum’s Role in Implicit Memory

    • Cerebellum: helps facilitate associate learning responses

      • ie classical conditioning.

  • Cutting pathway to the cerebellum makes rabbits unable to learn conditioned responses.

  • A diagram for your viewing pleasure

    Types of





    With conscious




    Without conscious








    classical and









    and cognitive

    A Diagram For Your Viewing Pleasure

    Warm up pg 8
    Warm Up – pg 8

    • How do you get info into Long TermMemory?

    • What is the purpose of Sensory Memory?

    • What is Long Term Potential?

    • What is the capacity of STM?

    • What is the difference between explicit and implicit memories?

    • Where are explicit memories stored?

    Retrieval getting information out
    Retrieval: Getting Information Out

    • Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier.

    • Ex: Fill in the Blank.

    Retrieval getting information out1
    Retrieval: Getting Information Out

    • Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned.

    • Easier than recall

      • Ex: Multiple Choice

    Retrieval cues
    Retrieval Cues

    • Priming:activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations of memory.

      • Missing child poster…. Kidnapped

      • Tastes, smells,sights

    Retrieval cues1

    Context Effects Memory Retrieval: able to retrieve information better when you are in the same context you learned it in.

    Deja Vu

    Retrieval Cues

    Warm up page 5

    Emotional/Mood Impact of Memory:

    • 1. State-Dependent Memory: information is most easily recalled when in same “state” of consciousness it was learned in.

      • Drunk

  • 2. Mood Congruent Memory: tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood.

    • Depressed ppl recall parents as rejecting , mean…..

    • Teenagers and their relationships with their parents

    • Bad mood…. Look=glare

  • 7 sins of memory

    Absent Mindedness – inattention to details produces encoding failure

    Transience- unused info. fades

    Blocking- unable to access stored info….tip of your tongue

    Misattribution- confusing the source of the info.

    7 sins of Memory

    Warm up page 5

    5. Suggestibility- the lingering effects of misinformation

    Leading questions

    6.Bias-belief- colored recollections

    7. Persistence-unwanted memories won’t go away

    Blocking demo
    Blocking Demo

    • Oslo

    • Ankara

    • Nairobi

    • Montevideo

    • Lhasa

    • Canberra

    • Lisbon

    • Bucharest

    • Port- au- Prince

    • Sofia

    • Seoul

    • Baghdad

    • Nicosia

    Warm up page 5

    • Nicosia

    • Manila

    • Managua

    • Helsinki

    • Bogota

    • Ottawa

    • Bangkok

    • Caracas

    • Juneau

    • Santa Fe

    • Pierre

    • Jefferson City

    • Topeka

    • Dover

    Warm up page 5

    27. Raleigh

    28. Montpellier


    30. Cheyenne


    32. Concord

    33. Boise

    34. Springfield

    35. Harrisburg

    36. Salem

    37. Helena

    38. Hartford

    39. Lansing

    40. Augusta


    • Forgetting is a result of either:

    • Encoding Failure

    • Storage Decay OR

    • Retrieval Failure

    Forgetting as encoding failure
    Forgetting As Encoding Failure

    • Information never enters the memory system

    • Attention is selective

      • we cannot attend to everything in our environment

    • William James said that we would be as bad off if we remembered everything as we would be if we remembered nothing

    • Change Blindness

      • Penny


    • Which way does Lincoln Face? To the Left or Right?

    • Is anything written above his head? If yes, what it is?

    • Is anything below his head? If so, what is it?

    • Is anything written to the left of his face? If so, what is it?

    • Is anything written to the right of his face? If so, what is it?


    • Lincoln faces to the right

    • Above his head it say’s “ In god We Trust”

    • Below his head is nothing

    • To his left it says” liberty”

    • To his right is the year the coin was minted

    More encoding failures
    More Encoding Failures

    • What is the color of the top stripe of the American flag?

      • Red

        2. The bottom Stripe?

      • Red

        3. How many red and white stripes does it have?

      • 7 red and 6 white

    More encoding failures1
    More Encoding Failures

    4. Most wooden pencils are not round. How many sides dot hey typically have?

    • Six

      5. In what hand does the Statue of Liberty hold her torch?

    • Right

    Retrieval failure

    Forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from long-term memory


    Retrieval Failure

    Forgetting and spanish learned












    Percentage of






    then levels off

    1 3 5 9½ 14½ 25 35½ 49½

    Time in years after completion of Spanish course

    Forgetting and Spanish Learned

    Forgetting as interference
    Forgetting As Interference

    • Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other information

      • Proactive(forward acting) Interference

        • disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information

          • New Phone Number

          • New schedule

    Forgetting as interference1
    Forgetting As Interference

    • Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference

      • disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information

        • Teacher learning new names

        • Take a break after learning