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Differential Reinforcement. Goals for Today. Define Differential Reinforcement Discuss the importance of using replacement behaviors Discuss the different types of differential reinforcement DRO DRI DRA DRL Discuss Functional Communication Training. Differential Reinforcement.

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goals for today
Goals for Today
  • Define Differential Reinforcement
  • Discuss the importance of using replacement behaviors
  • Discuss the different types of differential reinforcement
    • DRO
    • DRI
    • DRA
    • DRL
  • Discuss Functional Communication Training
differential reinforcement1
Differential Reinforcement
  • Reinforcing a more appropriate behavior that the teachers or parents wish a child to learn, instead of exhibiting the inappropriate behavior.
  • 1:1 principle – a behavior that is being reduced should be replaced with a functionally similar, yet acceptable, response
identifying replacement behaviors
Identifying replacement behaviors
  • What can the child do instead of what s/he has been doing that serves the same function?
  • Also needs to be operationally defined
    • Dead man’s rule: if a dead man can do it, it’s not behavior!
  • Good replacement behavior: “taps person on the shoulder instead of hitting”
  • Bad replacement behavior: “sits quietly and waits” (can’t get attention that way…hitting works much better!)
differential reinforcement of other behavior dro
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
  • “DR-Zero”
    • Resetting
    • Nonresetting
using dro effectively
Using DRO Effectively
  • Use a powerful reinforcer
  • Schedule carefully
    • Take baseline on how often the behavior occurs – Inter-response time
  • Do not reinforce occurrences of the behavior
differential reinforcement of alternative incompatible behaviors dra dri
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative/Incompatible Behaviors (DRA/DRI):
  • Reinforcing a more appropriate behavior that the teachers or parents wish a child to learn, instead of exhibiting the inappropriate behavior.
  • 1:1 principle – a behavior that is being reduced should be replaced with a functionally similar, yet acceptable, response
differential reinforcement of alternative incompatible behaviors dra dri1
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative/Incompatible Behaviors (DRA/DRI):
  • Most common DRA: Functional Communication Training
    • Don’t worry about structure so much in the beginning
    • Make it something universally understood and easy to acquire
    • Refine responding over time

Example:Reinforcing a child’s use of an alternative communication system rather than a child’s tantruming when making requests.

differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior drl
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior (DRL)
  • Goal is reduction and not elimination
    • Baseline responding should serve as initial DRL
    • Reinforcement must be powerful
    • Must increase judiciously
      • Time based
      • Response based
for more information
For More Information

Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2009). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill-Prentice-Hall.

Carr, E., & Durand, V. (1985). Reducing Behavior Problems through Functional Communication Training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(2), 111-26. Retrieved from ERIC database.

Catania, A. C. (1998). Learning (nth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Durand, V., & Carr, E. (1992). An Analysis of Maintenance Following Functional Communication Training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(4), 777-94. Retrieved from ERIC database.

Durand, V., & Carr, E. (1991). Functional Communication Training to Reduce Challenging Behavior: Maintenance and Application in New Settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(2), 251-64. Retrieved from ERIC database.

Petscher, E., Rey, C., & Bailey, J. (2009). A Review of Empirical Support for Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 30(3), 409-425. Retrieved from ERIC database.