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Military Culture and the South African armed forces. An historical perspective. Ian van der Waag Department of Military History, Stellenbosch University / Military Academy. http://sun.academia.edu/IanvanderWaag. Introduction: identities , cultures, peoples. South Africa a unique case?

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military culture and the south african armed forces

Military Culture and the South African armed forces

An historical perspective

Ian van der Waag

Department of Military History,

Stellenbosch University / Military Academy

http://sun.academia.edu/IanvanderWaag

introduction identities cultures peoples
Introduction: identities, cultures, peoples
  • South Africa a unique case?
    • Three processes within one century
introduction identities cultures peoples1
Introduction: identities, cultures, peoples

Williamson Murray (1996)

‘Military culture might best be described as the sum of the intellectual, professional, and traditional values of an officer corps; it plays a central role in how that officer corps assesses the external environment and how it analyzes the possible response that it might make to “the threat”.’

  • South Africa a unique case?
  • What is military culture?
introduction identities cultures peoples2
Introduction: identities, cultures, peoples
  • South Africa a unique case?
  • What is military culture?
  • Contestation
  • Transfer of British culture?
  • Multiple identities, cultures
  • Weight of history
  • Interdisciplinary approaches
slide6

Those left out

First Amalgam

slide7

Strategic thinking

Threat perceptions

Planning

Force design

Force preparation

Strategic landscape

  • South Africa’s fault lines
    • Race
    • Language
    • Class
    • Province
  • Military geography
    • Threat perception(s)
    • Going to war?

Background, views

slide8

Strategic landscape

  • South Africa’s fault lines
  • Military geography
  • Anti-military sentiment
  • The “British connection” and all that
  • Boonzaaier’s take on the nature of British militarism [1912]
slide10
Factors affecting the nature and standing of the UDF

Boer

  • Military culture
  • Politics of integration
    • Meeting on an equal basis?
    • Balancing of language and sectarian interested
    • Divided command - Union Defence Forces
      • Permanent Force (Lukin)
      • Citizen Force (Beyers)
      • Cadets (Beves)
    • Defence Council
    • General staff

Colonial

UDF

British

slide11

General and senior offices in the UDF, 1912-50

n = 61 (English-speaking = 31; Afrikaans = 30)

slide13
Several factors affected the nature and standing of the UDF
  • Military culture
  • Politics of integration
  • Appointment of the high command
  • Local British commands
  • Stark economic environment
  • Participation in the two world wars
slide14
Nomenclature First World War

Cartoon Second World War

‘The European Crisis’ [clerks in the Defence Department]

‘The German South West Expedition’ [clerks in the PM’s office]

‘Die Brits-Duitse-oorlog’ [FS Malan, member of Botha cabinet]

slide17

Andreas Grové arrived at the Cape as a soldier in 1719, free burgher 1722, farmer at Klapmuts, later Paardenburg, member of the Burgher Council 1745, acting governor of the Cape; m. 1721 Anna Nel

Sophia Grové bap.1722

m.(1) 1738 Andries Brink, remarried 1749 Alida de Waal

StephanusGrové bap.1724

Heemraad van Drakenstein

Elisabeth Grové

m. 1745 Gerrit van derByl 1704-67, farmer De Leeuwenhoek, 24 Rivieren, Drakenstein & Vredenburg, Stellenbosch

Anna Grové bap.1735

m. 1761 Daniel van Ryneveld, Landdrost of Swellendam & Stellenbosch

AndriesChristoffel van derByl 1749-1830, farmer Kromme Rhee and Spier, Stellenbosch

m. 1769 Anne Grové

Pieter Gerhard van derByl 1753-1831, farmer Welmoed, Lynedoch; m.(2) 1792 Hester Elisabeth de Wet +1817

Willem Stephanus van Ryneveld 1765-1812

Chief Justice of the Cape Colony & President of the Council of Justice

Jan Godlieb Brink bap.1741

m. Susanna Maria de Kock

Jan Brink 1753-

m.(2) 1787

Susanna Justina Faure

Anna Elisabeth van derByl 1746-97; m.1769 Jacob Eksteen 1750-1822, remarried 1799 Anna Aletta Malan

Daniel Johannes van Ryneveld, Landdrost of Stellenbosch

Andries Brink

1765-1848

m. HendrinaWium

Andries Brink

1792-1873

m. 1820 Sophia Eksteen

Pieter Gerhard van derByl 1788-1849, farmer Paardevallei, Somerset West & Schoongezicht, Jonkershoek

m. 1821 Anna Maria Brink 1796-1874

Pieter Voltelin van derByl 1798-1849, farmer Welmoed, Lynedoch MLC Cape Colony

m. 1818 Johanna Isabella van Breda 1797-1874

AndriesChristoffel van derByl 1825-86, farmer Schoongezicht, Jonkershoek

m. 1847 Gezina Wilhelmina Constantia Marais

Jan Godlieb Brink 1788-1840

m. Johanna Catharina Ahlers

Anna Maria van derByl 1839-94; m.1855 ChristiaanFrederikBeyers 1839-1886, farmer Zorgvliet, Banghoek

Johannes Albertus van derByl 1825-73, farmer Fairfield, Caledon; m. 1850 Hester Anna Myburgh, of Elsenburg

Willem Stephanus van Ryneveld

1821-

Jacob Eksteen Brink 1843-

Andries Jacob Brink

m. 1874 Catherina Anna MargarethaFrieslich

PetrusGerhardus Brink 1826-

m. Johanna Jacobs

Pieter GerhardusBeyers

ChristiaanFrederikBeyers1868-1914 Commandant General of the SA Citizen Forces 1912-14, drowned in the Afrikaner Rebellion

Pieter Gerhard van derByl 1848-1919, farmer Kellerfontein, Boshoff

m. Hester Groenewald

Pieter Voltelin van derByl 1851-1925, farmer Fairfield, Caledon; m. 1881 Adelaide Taylor

Daniel Johannes van Ryneveld

1845-

Johan Godlieb Brink 1857-1916

m. Magdalena Hartogh

Maj Gen A.J.E. Brink, 1877-1947

Secretary for Defence 1922-37, Chief of the General Staff 1920-33

Colonel Carolus Brink, 1879-1956

Quartermaster General 1921-37

Lt Gen Leonard Beyers

Chief of the SA General Staff 1948-50

Brig Gen Hendrik Johannes van derByl1887-1948 Director General of War Supplies

Pieter Voltelin Graham van derByl1889-

Smuts government, Minister of Native Affairs 1943-8

Lt Gen Sir Pierre van Ryneveld1891-1972

Chief of the General Staff 1933-49

Lt Gen George Edwin Brink 1889-1971 Director of Army Organisation and Training 1937-8, Deputy Chief of the General Staff 1938-40, commander of 1 SA Division, Director General of Demobilisation 1945-8

the sandf
The SANDF

New South Africa 1994

slide23

MK

VDF

BDF

KZSPF

TDF

CDF

composition of the general staff of the sandf in terms of former force 1997 and 2007 percentages
Composition of the general staff of the SANDF in terms of former force: 1997 and 2007 (percentages)

Heinecken 2009

history military culture and the south african military
History, military culture and the South African military

African way of war

Western way of war

Dutch (1652)

[German]

British (1795)

Boer (1715)

Colonial (1688)

East Bloc

UDF (1912)

OB (1938)

SADF (1948/1957)

MK (1961) APLA

TBVC

SANDF (1994)

cyclical periods of change
Cyclical periods of change

Republic

1961

New South Africa 1994

Union 1910

?