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Ch. 21 - Electricity. II. Electric Current (p.598-599) Circuit Potential Difference Current Resistance Ohm’s Law. A. Circuit. Circuit closed path through which electrons can flow. A. Potential Difference. Potential Difference (voltage)

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ch 21 electricity

Ch. 21 - Electricity

II. Electric Current

(p.598-599)

Circuit

Potential Difference

Current

Resistance

Ohm’s Law

a circuit
A. Circuit
  • Circuit
    • closed path through which electrons can flow
a potential difference
A. Potential Difference
  • Potential Difference (voltage)
    • difference in electrical potential between two places
    • large separation of charge creates high voltage
    • the “push” that causes e- to move from - to +
    • measured in volts (V)
b current
B. Current
  • Current
    • flow of electrons through a conductor
    • depends on # of e- passing a point in a given time
    • measured in amperes (A)
c resistance

Copper - low resistance

Tungsten - high resistance

C. Resistance
  • Resistance
    • opposition the flow of electrons
    • electrical energy is converted to thermal energy & light
    • measured in ohms ()
c resistance1
C. Resistance
  • Resistance depends on…
    • the conductor
  • wire thickness
    • less resistance in thicker wires
  • wire length
    • less resistance in shorter wires
  • temp - less resistance at low temps
e ohm s law
E. Ohm’s Law
  • Ohm’s Law

V: potential

difference (V)

I: current (A)

R: resistance ()

V = I × R

  • Voltage increases when current increases.
  • Voltage decreases when resistance increases.
e ohm s law1

V

R

I

E. Ohm’s Law
  • A lightbulb with a resistance of 160  is plugged into a 120-V outlet. What is the current flowing through the bulb?

GIVEN:

R = 160 

V = 120 V

I = ?

WORK:

I = V ÷ R

I = (120 V) ÷ (160 )

I = 0.75 A