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# Water Resources Assessment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Water Resources Assessment. Main Resources Surface water Groundwater Unconventional Tools Flood routing/delineation models Runoff models GIS Finite element Finite difference Lumped parameters models. Q in. S. Q out. Surface Water. General Equation I(t) – O(t) = Δ S/ Δ t

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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Water Resources Assessment' - base

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Presentation Transcript

• Main Resources

• Surface water

• Groundwater

• Unconventional

• Tools

• Flood routing/delineation models

• Runoff models

• GIS

• Finite element

• Finite difference

• Lumped parameters models

Qin

S

Qout

Surface Water

• General Equation

I(t) – O(t) = ΔS/Δt

• Oin Inputs

• Precipitation

• Base flow

• Oin Outputs

• E/ET

• Infiltration

• Intakes

• Reservoir

• Balance

ΔS/Δt=(P*Ares+Qin)-(E*Ares+Qout)

• Residence Time

S/I(t)

• Watershed

ΔS/Δt=(P*A)-(ET*A+Qout)

• Definitions

• Saturated Zone: VWater=Vvoids

• Unsaturated Zone: VWater < Vvoids

• Moisture Content: VWater < Vtotal

• Voids/Pores: allow the flow of water

• Water Table: surface where the water pressure in the pores equals Zero

• Porosity: n = Vvoids /Vtotal (~0 - 0.7)

• Hydraulic conductivity [L/T]= represents how easily water can flow through formation

• Gravel >50 m/day

• Course Sand: K = 30-50 m/day

• Fine sand: K = 10-30 m/day

• Silt: K = 1-10 m/day

• Clay: K < 1 m/day

• Definitions

• Formations types with respect to water bearing

• Aquifer = permeable layer that contains and transmits water in large quantities

• Confined

• Unconfined

• Aquiclude = impermeable layer that may contain water but transmissivity is very low

• Aquitard = semi permeable layer that transmits water in the vertical direction only

• Aquifuge = impermeable layer that neither contains nor transmits water

calcareous sandstone,

unconsolidated sands

Eocene chalks

and limestone

marls, marine shales, and claystones

General Cross Section of Gaza Aquifer

Groundwater

• Darcy

• Average pore velocity

• Problem:

A tracer traveled 3 days and 6 hours between 2 wells that are 20 m apart. Water elevation difference between the wells is 0.5m, porosity n=0.15. Estimate v, q, K

Ss [1/L] = Specific Storage = volume of water that a unit volume

of aquifer releases under a unit decline in hydraulic head

S [dimensionless] = Storativity = volume of water that a unit surface

area of aquifer releases under a unit decline in hydraulic head

• Pollutants transport mechanisms