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Particulate, Gas & Vapor (Sampling Equipment). PARTICULATE. Definitions . Aerosols – the dispersion of solid or liquid particles in the gaseous medium Dust – dispersion of solid particles in the gaseous medium

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Particulate, Gas & Vapor(Sampling Equipment)



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Definitions

  • Aerosols – the dispersion of solid or liquid particles in the gaseous medium

  • Dust – dispersion of solid particles in the gaseous medium

  • Fumes – solid particles in a gaseous medium formed by condensation of solid materials (vapor)

  • Smoke – usually but not necessarily consist of solid particles


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Shape, Size and Distribution

  • Various shape, size and density of particulate

  • AED is the diameter of a unit density sphere having the same settling velocity as the particle concern

  • Polydisperse dust cloud (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation)


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Aerodynamic Behavior In Airstream

  • Impaction – proportional to the momentum i.e. mass and velocity

  • Sedimentation – proportional to its diameter

  • Diffusion – for particles < 0.1um


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Size Selective and Selected Area of Deposition

  • Nasopharyngeal deposition (upper respiratory tract) – 7 to 20um

  • Tracheobronchial (conducting airways) – 5 to 7um

  • Alveolar region (gas exchange area) – 0.5 – 5um


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Inhaled Dust Fractions (Sampling Instrument)

  • Respirable dust – the dust fraction that will penetrate to the unciliated portion of the lungs


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Purpose of Sampling

  • Compliance with the requirement of the law

  • Health risk assessment

  • Epidemiological study

  • Assessment of control measures


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Type of Sampling

  • Area sampling

  • Personal sampling


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Type of Sample & Equipment

  • Total dust

  • Inspirable dust – 7 hole sampler, IOM sampler, close face sampler

  • Respirable dust – BMRC horizontal elutriator, AEC cyclone

  • Thoracic dust – vertical elutriator

  • Fibers – open face sampler with cowl


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Sampling Equipment

  • Real time – piezobalance, dust counter etc

  • Non real time – filtration, impaction (cascade impactor)



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Definitions

  • Gas – a state of matter in which a substance completely fills the region in which it is contained; has very low density and viscosity; can expand and contract greatly in response to changes in temperature and pressure; and easily diffuses into other gases e.g., CO, CO2, HCN, NH4, SO2, H2S, N2O, O3, Formaldehyde, phosgene, arsine, vinyl chloride etc


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  • Vapour – the gaseous state or form of a substance which is normally in the liquid or solid state at room temperature and pressure. The liquid or solid may be reduced to the vapor by the action of heat. A vapor can be liquefied by a suitable increase in pressure e.g., toluene, xylene, alcohol, C2S, benzene, carbon tetrachloride etc


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Physiological Effects

  • Carcinogens – vinyl chloride, benzene, benzidine, B-napthylamine, formaldehyde

  • Systemic poisons – C2S, parathion, hexane, chlorinated hydrocarbon

  • Asphyxiation – CO, CH4, HS, Na Nitrite

  • Irritation – acid, alkali, O3, N2O, phosgene

  • Anesthetic/narcosis – alcohol, ketones

  • Sensitizer – TDI, formaldehyde


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Physicochemical Properties

  • Solubility

  • Melting and boiling points

  • Vapor pressure

  • Vapor density or relative density

  • Flash point


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CSDS

  • Physicochemical properties


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Purpose of Sampling

  • Compliance with the requirement of the law

  • Health risk assessment

  • Epidemiological study

  • Assessment of control measures


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Type of Sampling

  • Area sampling

  • Personal sampling


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Sampling Equipment

  • Real time

  • Non real time


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Sampling Equipment (examples)

  • Charcoal tubes with pump

  • Passive sampler (diffusion membrane)

  • Bubbler (midget impinger)

  • MIRAN

  • Portable gas chromatography

  • Detector tubes