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World War I (1914-1918). The Great War Europe Changes forever. Intro Video. Start at 39 minutes. The Ism’s. The world had changed and influence had been put on three things Imperialism Militarism Nationalism M.A.I.N.S

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world war i 1914 1918

World War I (1914-1918)

The Great War

Europe Changes forever

intro video
Intro Video
  • Start at 39 minutes

the ism s
The Ism’s
  • The world had changed and influence had been put on three things
    • Imperialism
    • Militarism
    • Nationalism
      • M.A.I.N.S
        • Militarism, Alliance System, Imperialism, Nationalism, Significant People
1 imperialism
  • The movement in the late 19th and early 20th century
    • To obtain land and expand your empire
      • European version of the Manifest destiny
    • Countries in Europe had laid claim to area’s all over the world
1 issues of imperialism
1-Issues of Imperialism
  • When nations in Europe claimed their lands it often led to conflicts
    • Opposing colonizing forces would often fight one another
    • Boer War – occurred in South Africa between the Dutch and the English
2 militarism
  • An expanding German army caused other powers in Europe to take notice
    • An arms race began in Europe
    • Military power was to be shown through army size and new naval tech.
navy power before and after
Navy power before and after

Former War ships

Dreadnought Class

2 the dreadnought
2-The Dreadnought
  • Germany threatened Britain's greatest claim –the strength of their navy
  • In response to this action, Britain devolved the Dreadnought –(made all other warships obsolete)
  • Britain's navy doubled, as did Germanys, as did France's and so on.
2 militarism1
  • France’s, Germany’s, Britain's, Russia and other European nations standing armies doubled
2 secret alliances
2- Secret alliances
  • The nation was entangled in alliances that were unknown to other countries
    • Often made to keep other countries from invading seized land
    • Scenario..
      • Japanese-Russo war
      • Great Britain is an ally of both, who do they support?
3 nationalism
  • Nationalism is the idea that you must band together with people similar to you
    • The thought that your nation is greater than any other
    • Combined with militarism, this made tensions high in Europe
alliance systems
Alliance Systems.
  • Go back to 1860
    • During American civil war the states of Prussia were waging war trying to unite the German Kingdoms
    • The succeeded in unifying Germany
      • Destroyed the balance of power in Europe
    • By 1871 had unified and had become one of the international powers
alliance system
Alliance System
  • In 1870 German attacked France for territory
    • From this point on –Germany and France are enemies
  • To protect itself Germany signed a secret alliance treaty with..
    • Italy
    • Austria-Hungary
      • The Three were known as the Triple Alliance
alliance system1
Alliance system
  • Triple alliance caused fear for Russia
    • How could Germany expand?
    • Both wanted influence in Southeast Europe
      • Why would this be important for Germany? Russia?
    • Russia opposed Austria-Hungary
      • Slav’s
alliance system2
Alliance System
  • As a result France and Russia signed
    • Franco-Russian Alliance
      • Why?
  • Due to the Common interest in opposing Germany and A.H.
alliance system3
Alliance System
  • G.B. Wanted to remain neutral
    • Naval Race
  • When Germany tried to equal G.B. navy the tensions increased
  • Refused to sign a formal alliance with Russian and France but had friendly understanding
    • “entente cordiale”
the spark of war
The spark of War
  • Archduke of Austria-Hungary
  • Target of Serbian assassin group
    • “The black hand”
  • Was touring Bosnian Capital, Sarajevo

Franz Ferdinand

spark of war
Spark of war
  • The black hand was brought in to assassinate the archduke
    • It took place under the knowledge of Serbian Government
    • They had hoped that it would start a war
      • Hoped to bring down Austro-Hungarian empire
spark of war1
Spark of War
  • Austria-Hungary was angered by the assassination
  • They decided that Serbia had to be crushed to prevent a Slovak uprising
    • however
spark of war2
Spark of War
  • A.H. knew that if they attacked Serbia would declare war on A.H.
    • So they asked for Germany to back their cause --They agreed
    • A.H sent an ultimatum
      • List of demands
        • Austrian control in Serbia
        • Repayment
        • Etc…
sparks of war
Sparks of War
  • Germany had made it known that it was going to back A.H
    • Forced them into the war
  • Russia informed everyone that they were going to back Serbia
    • They asked for France’s aid
    • Fearing Germany, France agreed
the war begins
The War Begins!
  • On August 1st 1914 Germany Declares war on Russia
  • Aug. 3rd Germany declares war on France
  • Aug. 4th Britain declares war on Germany
  • Aug. 6th A.H. declares war on Russia
  • Aug. 12th A.H. declares war on GB and France
kaiser wilhelm ii
Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • Leader of Germany during World War One
von schlieffen plan
Von Schlieffen plan
  • Germany’s Ultimate Idea
  • Through a series of invasions they would blitz through France and Capture Paris in a matter of days
  • There were a few problems with the plan however
    • Russia had mobilized their army faster than Germany expected (had to remove troops from A. to B.)
von schlieffen plan1
Von Schlieffen Plan
  • German soldiers were to gather on the French German border and rush to Paris
    • The thought was eliminate France and focus on Russia
      • A quick defeat would keep Britain out of the war
  • The plan ultimately failed
world war one
World War One
  • As soon as Germany stepped foot in Belgium G.B. Declared war on Germany
  • The Allied Powers (Allies) were formed (GB, France, Russia, (Italy-1915)
central powers
Central Powers
  • Germany
  • A.H.
  • Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
von schlieffen plan fails
Von Schlieffen plan fails
  • Although the plan seemed to work in the beginning, it was impossible for the northern soldiers to keep up with the southern ones
  • Got within 30 miles of Paris but was fought off
  • Now what were the armies to do?
    • They flanked and dug in
napoleon tactics
Napoleon tactics
  • Much Like the civil war, Europe still used the “old style of warfare”
  • The idea was to rush the opposition with full frontal attacks
      • Bad idea against machine guns
  • The two sides constantly tried to outflank one another
race to the sea
Race to the Sea
  • The constant flanking moved the war north
  • Multiple battles due to constant interaction
  • Lead to trench warfare
the warfare
The Warfare
  • The strategy for war had now changed
  • Rather than frontal assaults, it had turned into trench warfare
    • Why?
trench warfare
Trench Warfare
  • The race to the sea showed the nations that the nature of war had changed
    • How?
  • They dug themselves into trenches
    • To avoid what?
  • The sole purpose of a trench was it offered protection from
    • Explosives
    • Machine gun’s
    • Enemy line of vision
    • Poison gas?
advantages of the trench
Advantages of the Trench
  • It was very effective in protection
    • For days, months or even years
  • Effectively stopped enemy advances
  • Good communication lines, and ability to move from A to B
negatives of the trench
Negatives of the Trench
  • To effective at protection
    • Any advancement lead to massive amount of deaths
      • Were the trenches to effective? Or was it human error?
  • Disease
    • Pest’s
    • Filthy living conditions
  • Shell shock
death tolls
Death Tolls
  • Huge numbers of troops would die as they tried to rush enemy trench
  • Constant barrage of bullets
  • Bodies were left in trenches
pest and infestation
Pest and infestation
  • With the dead bodies left to rot, pests began to move into the trenches
    • Rats***
    • Often they were hunted down as a source of food
      • Also for protection for the soldiers
trench foot
Trench Foot
  • Condition in which someone’s foot is wet for too long.
    • The skin begins to blister, rot and eventually falls off
    • Swelling also occurs
    • If left untreated for too long, amputation is necessary
  • Small Parasite
    • Feeds on human blood
trench conditions
Trench Conditions

German Trench

Allied Trenches

how did trench warfare change the war
How did Trench Warfare change the war?
  • 1) caused the war to last much longer than anticipated
  • 2) made the war more violent
    • How?
  • 3) changed the landscape of Europe forever
new tech s
New Tech’s
  • Machine Gun
    • Guns that could fire anywhere from 600 to 1,200 shells in a minute
      • 20 shells a second!
  • Known to cut tree’s down
  • The First Tanks were introduced during WW1
  • Primitive, bulky, and mostly ineffective
  • Usually broke down before it had a chance to go anywhere
  • Wooden Cloth vehicles
    • Mainly used to scout
    • Adapted machine guns
      • TRIED to drop bombs late in the war
america enters the war
America Enters the War
  • Until 1917, America had a very Isolated view of the war
    • President Wilson urged American's to stay Imperial through all this
    • Difficult for Americans to do
america choosing sides
America choosing sides
  • Americans could not keep their interests out of Europe
    • They were left with a choice
      • Central Powers
      • Allied Powers?
  • Who do you think a majority of Americans sided with?
pro british sentiment
Pro British Sentiment
  • Many Americans were very pro-British
    • Many of Wilsons Cabinet were pro-British
    • They pushed to aid G.B
  • Great Britain used propaganda to try and influence America into the war
america pulled into the war
America pulled into the war
  • Germany knew that if they could stop American Trade to G.B. they could force them out of the war
    • Announced they would sink any vessel in G.B. waters
    • Angered U.S.A
    • (Unrestricted Submarine Warfare)
      • What is this?!
the lusitania
The Lusitania
  • British Passenger Liner
  • Entered A war-zone
    • Fired on by German U-Boat
      • Kills 1,200 passengers (128 americans)
  • Americans viewed it as an act of terrorism not war –but America was very much so angered
other events
Other events
  • The sinking of the Sussex
    • Another merchant ship sunk by German U-boat
  • Sussex Pledge
    • Germany promised to no longer sink citizen ships without warning
      • Wanted to keep US out
zimmerman telegram
Zimmerman Telegram
  • Letter intercepted by British intelligence and published in American newspapers
    • Stated: to Mexico from Germany
    • 1) Aid us in war with the United States
    • 2) in doing so, you will be returned lost lands
  • Ultimately pushed America into the war
america declares war
America Declares War
  • Feb. 1st 1917 (Germany resumed unrestricted warfare)
    • Sink 6 American ships in two months
  • April 2nd, 1917 – America Declares War
    • War had been fought already for three years
getting america ready for war
Getting America Ready for War
  • Not all Americans were sold on the war
    • Committee on Public Information (CPI)
    • Their goal was to sell the war to the American Public
      • Actors, Song writers, Authors and others with a voice were recruited to paint a positive image of war
  • Are the same practices used today?
troubles at home
Troubles at home
  • Espionage (Spying) was a major fear of the USA
    • Espionage Act (1917) made to allow prison terms to ones found guilty
    • Sedation Act (1918) made it illegal to speak negatively about the war
      • Or anyone who talked badly about the president!
      • 1,000 convictions
german americans
German Americans
  • At this time in history—hard place to live for German-Americans
    • some were beaten for their heritage
    • One was lynched for “seeming” disloyal
    • Other common things changed as well
american pride
American Pride
  • Sauerkraut was changed to …

Liberty Cabbage

  • Hamburgers were changed to…

Salisbury Steak

limitation of free speech
Limitation of Free Speech
  • Schenk vs. The US
    • Stated that free speech could be restricted if it posed a danger to America
    • 1st amendment states: “Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech”
      • What do you think about this?
america enters russia leaves
America Enters / Russia Leaves
  • When America was deploying, Russia Dropped out of the war
    • Why?
      • Here is a hint


  • Czar Nickolas II -- former leader of Russia
    • Abducted his throne (gave up power)
  • Vladimir Lenin (leader of Bolsheviks) takes control of Russian Government
    • Communist Russia is born
  • Signed a treaty with Germany
    • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    • Gave them land for Germany to remove troops that remained in Russian Territory
why did america get involved
Why did America get involved?
  • Yes they wanted to support GB and France, but not the biggest issue
    • Yes they were attacked
    • Yes they were plotted against
  • The Biggest reason however was for Economical Reasons
    • US had so much Invested in GB and France (Trade and Stock)
effect america had on europe
Effect America had on Europe
  • Ally’s moral was low
    • America’s entry sparked a fighting sprit
    • Likewise, lowered the moral of the Central Powers
      • All but spelled doom for Germany and Central Powers
      • Had to do something drastic
  • Germany Makes a final offensive, but ultimately fails
battle of argonne forest
Battle of Argonne Forest
  • German Attack stalled
  • USA and French launch massive counter attack
  • 600K Troops, 40K tons of Supplies, 4K artillery pieces
  • Started on September 26th, 1918
    • Slowly but surely, America and France advanced through German Lines
the war comes to an end
The War Comes to an End
  • As war raged on the Western Front (France-German boarder) A.H and O.E. Surrender and leaves Germany Alone
  • With a naval Mutiny influence reaching Berlin, an uprising begins
  • Kaiser Wilhelm is forced to step down
germany surrenders
Germany Surrenders
  • On the 11th day, on the 11th hour, in the 11th month Germany Surrenders (1918)
    • How long was the war?
  • Germany Signed an Armistice (cease fire)
a flawed peace
A Flawed Peace
  • In January 1919 a peace conference began in Paris to resolve the issue of WW1
  • The big four were present
    • 1) USA – Wilson
    • 2) Great Britain – David Lloyd
    • 3) France – Clemenceau
    • 4) Italy – Orlando
  • Germany was not Present
    • Does this seem fair?
wilson s 14 points
Wilson’s 14 points
  • At the conference President Wilson presented his 14 point plan
    • Wanted to eliminate the general causes of the war
    • Disarmament
    • Freedom of the sea’s
  • The biggest point however was his idea for the –League of Nations
the 14 th point
The 14th point
  • The league of nations was Wilson’s brainchild
    • Nations would preserve peace
    • They would also prevent events leading to other wars
    • And act as protectors of other’s territories
  • The conference in Paris ultimately rejected the Wilson’s ideas saying
    • “it was far to easy on Germany”
    • And “it did not align with our nations interests”
      • Is this a precursor for anything in history?
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Despite Wilsons hopes, Germany signed a document that was far to harsh than he preferred
  • Under the treaty
    • Germanys army was stripped
    • They had to pay reparations (33 Billion)
    • Made Germany take blame for the war (in hindsight—worst part of the treaty)
      • Why?
broken peace
Broken Peace
  • This treaty is what lead Germany to allowing A Fascist government to take control in the 30’s
  • It belittled Germany, it caused a lot of resentment
  • Resulted in 10+ countries being formed in Europe
    • Poland
    • Czechoslovakia
effect the war had on america
Effect the War had on America
  • After the war was over the government released control of the economy they had taken
    • Rationing ended
    • Capped prices ended
  • Companies began to raise prices and produce more goods
    • What would this cause?
  • By 1919 Prices had risen by 15%
    • Increased the cost of living
      • (Clothes, Food, Shelter and other essentials)
inflation leads to strikes
Inflation leads to strikes
  • Seattle General Strike
    • Shipyard workers *more money less hours*
    • Was a General Strike
      • Workers of the city, not just the industry went on strike
    • Paralyzed the city
      • Americans hated it (COMMON Communist action)
strikes boston police strike
Strikes – Boston Police Strike
  • 75% of Boston's Police force walked out on the job
    • Lead to wide spread rioting and chaos
    • When Workers tried to return, Police Commissioner refused to hire them back
    • Calvin Coolidge gained political notoriety by solving conflict
racial unrest
Racial Unrest
  • White and Black Soldiers—and men—were competing for jobs
    • Tensions were high between the two
      • Over 20 Racial riots in 1919
  • In Chicago a riot was started that killed 38 people/ 15 white – 23 Black
the red scare
The Red Scare
  • American’s viewed Communist as enemies
    • “seemed” unpatriotic
  • Many Americans accused immigrants for starting riots in the name of communism
  • (Communist International) – organization for coordinating communist activities in other countries
red scare
Red Scare
  • Wide Spread fear that “Reds” were trying to take over America
  • Wide spread bomb attacks to place in America
  • One of which took place on US Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
palmer raids
Palmer Raids
  • Palmer established special division
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
  • Focused their actions on Radical organizations and immigrants
  • 500 Deported
palmer raids1
Palmer Raids
  • Failed to turn up any hard evidence
  • Used “dirty cop” techniques
    • Failed to use warrants and disregarded rights
end of progressivism
End of Progressivism
  • After Wilsons tenure America elected Warren Harding on the ideas of
    • Returning America back to “Normalcy”
  • This idea ends the progressive age