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Immune System. WBC attacking cancer cell. lymph system. Vocabulary of Immunity. Disease Any condition that disrupts the homeostasis of an organism. Pathogen Foreign organisms that cause disease. (microorganisms). What causes disease?. 1. Pathogens 2. Toxins in the environment

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slide1

Immune System

WBC

attacking

cancer cell

lymph

system

vocabulary of immunity
Vocabulary of Immunity

Disease

  • Any condition that disrupts the homeostasis of an organism.

Pathogen

  • Foreign organisms that cause disease. (microorganisms)
what causes disease
What causes disease?

1. Pathogens

2. Toxins in

the environment

3. Inheritance…

Gee thanks, mom!

how are diseases spread
HOW ARE DISEASES SPREAD?
  • Coughing
  • Sneezing
  • Physical Contact (Saliva, Blood, Bodily Fluids, Skin Contact)
  • Contaminated Food or Water
  • Infected Animals (Vectors)
the immune system
The Immune System

To protect and defend the body against pathogens

how does the immune system work
How does the Immune System Work?

2 ways:

1. Nonspecific defenses-

Tries to keep everything OUT!

  • Skin, mucus, cilia, tears, stomach acid, saliva, sweat

2. Specific Defenses-

Fights off infection once the

pathogen gets inside the body.

  • White Blood Cells (WBC’s)
inflammation
Inflammation

If the pathogen gets inside anyway, there are things your body usually does to try to slow the invader down…

1. Increased Body Fever: Denatures pathogen’s proteins

2. Expanding blood vessels: (red and warm)

Increased blood flow to area

= More RBC’s & clotting factors for repair

= More WBC’s to fight bacteria (pus)

the body recognizes invaders
The body recognizes invaders!

disease-causingbacteria

one of yourown cells

disease-causingvirus

antigens say:“I am an invader”

antigens say:“I belong here”

antigens say:“I am an invader”

Antigen

  • chemical name tags on the surface of every cell = Protein
slide11
White Blood CellsAKA: leukocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils, monocytes, macrophages

Some kill pathogens

Some produce antibodies

b cells
B cells
  • Patrolling B cells
    • make antibodies against invader immediately
  • Memory B cells
    • remembers invader
    • can make antibodies

quickly the next time!

antibodies proteins that either kill invaders or mark them for killing
Antibodies- proteins that either kill invaders or mark them for killing

Antibodies are SHAPE SPECIFIC to pathogens!

b cells immune response

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Patrolling

B cells

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Make & release antibodies

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Memory B cells

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B cells

B cells immune response

invader(foreign antigen)

recognition

Antibody “fits” with antigen

Antibodies already in blood

antibodies

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Antibodies:

invading germs tagged with antibodies

B cells releasing antibodies

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macrophageeating tagged invaders

The antibody tag says “this is an invader” quick…eat him!

t cells
T Cells

Helper T Cells: Notifies other WBC’s of invasion!

Killer T Cells: Hunts down pathogens & destroys them!

vaccinations
Vaccinations

1. Exposure to harmless

version of a pathogen

“dead”, weakened

vaccinations1
Vaccinations

2. Immune response produces antibodies to

mark and destroy the invading pathogen!

Antibodies = Shape Specific!!

3. Antibody production guarantees a rapid immune response if there is future exposure to the SAME pathogen!

  • Most successful against viral diseases
  • Ex: flu, chicken pox, HPV, MMR, swine flu, whooping cough, polio, small pox
immunity
Immunity
  • Immunity = the condition your body has when it already knows how to make the antibodies for a specific disease.
  • If you get sick with an illness and fight it off, you can’t get the same illness again
  • Pathogen is recognized! Helper T cells signal the immune system to respond!

B cells make antibodies.

Killer T cells start killing!

types of immunity
Types of Immunity

Active Immunity

Occurs when a organism is:

1. infected with a disease or

2. gets a vaccine

The organism makes it ownantibodies specific to antigen

This type of immunity last a life time (stimulates B cells to make antibodies if re-exposed)

types of immunity1
Types of Immunity

Passive Immunity

  • Antibodies made by another organism (not you!)
  • Only last a short time (~1 month, your body will eventually destroy the borrowed antibodies)
    • Ex: Babies will receive antibodies from their mother when they breastfeed.
    • Ex: Travelers to foreign countries can get antibodies (injected) against tropical diseases.
curing you of disease
Curing You of Disease

Antibiotics = medicine

Ex: Penicillin, Streptomycin, Tetracycline.

Advantage

  • kill bacteria that have successfully invaded you, without harming your cells

Disadvantages

  • use only after sick
  • only good against bacteria
  • possible development of resistance by bacteria

(if don’t use correctly) – ALWAYS TAKE THE ENTIRE Rx

  • can get sick again by the same pathogen
disruption of homeostasis
Disruption of Homeostasis…

Auto-Immune Diseases

Immune system attacks body cells

  • lupus
    • antibodies attack many different body cells
  • rheumatoid arthritis
    • antibodies cause damage to cartilage & bone
  • diabetes
    • insulin-making cells of pancreas are attacked & destroyed
  • multiple sclerosis
    • T cells attack myelin sheath of brain & spinal cord nerves
    • fatal
when things go wrong
When things go wrong…

Allergies

The response of the immune system to harmless environmental substances. (It thinks they are pathogens!)

  • Histaminesare the chemicals

released to cause the

inflammatory response

    • Ex: Pollen can cause a

fever, runny nose, and sneezing

  • Some allergies can trigger a

severe reaction, called anaphylactic shock

    • This can cause choking due to a constricted airway
organ transplants
Organ Transplants

People who are LIVING can donate a Kidney or a PART of THE:

Lung, Liver, Intestine, Pancreas

Tissues that can be donated are:

Cornea (coating of the eyeball), Middle ear, Skin, Heart valves, Bone, Veins, Cartilage, Tendons, Ligaments

Organs of the body that can transplanted after death:

Kidneys, Heart, Liver, Pancreas, Intestines, Lungs, Skin, Bone marrow, Cornea

organ transplants1
Organ Transplants

When a person receives someone else's organ, the organ has foreign antigens on it.

The recipient’s white blood cells will recognize the organ as foreign, think it is a pathogen, and attack it. (Killer T!)

So, the recipient has to take

immunosuppressant drugs

disease of the immune system
Disease of the Immune System

HIV:

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

  • Infects helper T cells
  • Helper T cells can’t activate rest of immune system
    • The body doesn’t hear the alarm

AIDS:Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome

  • T cell count very low

(200 cells/mm3 instead of the normal 500-1000)

  • infections by other (normal) pathogens can cause death
hiv aids symptoms
HIV/AIDSSymptoms

AIDS:

fatigue

diarrhea

nausea

vomiting

fever

chills

night sweats

Death from

opportunistic

Infections

hiv aids1
HIV/AIDS

Over 33.4 million people are infected with HIV/AIDS worldwide

transmission of hiv
Transmission of HIV

Healthy skin is an excellent barrier against HIV and other viruses and bacteria.

HIV cannot enter the body through unbroken skin.