Immune System. WBC attacking cancer cell. lymph system. Vocabulary of Immunity. Disease Any condition that disrupts the homeostasis of an organism. Pathogen Foreign organisms that cause disease. (microorganisms). What causes disease?. 1. Pathogens 2. Toxins in the environment
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2. Toxins in
Gee thanks, mom!
To protect and defend the body against pathogens
1. Nonspecific defenses-
Tries to keep everything OUT!
2. Specific Defenses-
Fights off infection once the
pathogen gets inside the body.
If the pathogen gets inside anyway, there are things your body usually does to try to slow the invader down…
1. Increased Body Fever: Denatures pathogen’s proteins
2. Expanding blood vessels: (red and warm)
Increased blood flow to area
= More RBC’s & clotting factors for repair
= More WBC’s to fight bacteria (pus)
one of yourown cells
antigens say:“I am an invader”
antigens say:“I belong here”
antigens say:“I am an invader”
Some kill pathogens
Some produce antibodies
quickly the next time!
Antibodies are SHAPE SPECIFIC to pathogens!
Helper T Cells: Notifies other WBC’s of invasion!
Killer T Cells: Hunts down pathogens & destroys them!
1. Exposure to harmless
version of a pathogen
2. Immune response produces antibodies to
mark and destroy the invading pathogen!
Antibodies = Shape Specific!!
3. Antibody production guarantees a rapid immune response if there is future exposure to the SAME pathogen!
B cells make antibodies.
Killer T cells start killing!
Occurs when a organism is:
1. infected with a disease or
2. gets a vaccine
The organism makes it ownantibodies specific to antigen
This type of immunity last a life time (stimulates B cells to make antibodies if re-exposed)
Antibiotics = medicine
Ex: Penicillin, Streptomycin, Tetracycline.
(if don’t use correctly) – ALWAYS TAKE THE ENTIRE Rx
Immune system attacks body cells
The response of the immune system to harmless environmental substances. (It thinks they are pathogens!)
released to cause the
fever, runny nose, and sneezing
severe reaction, called anaphylactic shock
People who are LIVING can donate a Kidney or a PART of THE:
Lung, Liver, Intestine, Pancreas
Tissues that can be donated are:
Cornea (coating of the eyeball), Middle ear, Skin, Heart valves, Bone, Veins, Cartilage, Tendons, Ligaments
Organs of the body that can transplanted after death:
Kidneys, Heart, Liver, Pancreas, Intestines, Lungs, Skin, Bone marrow, Cornea
When a person receives someone else's organ, the organ has foreign antigens on it.
The recipient’s white blood cells will recognize the organ as foreign, think it is a pathogen, and attack it. (Killer T!)
So, the recipient has to take
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
AIDS:Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome
(200 cells/mm3 instead of the normal 500-1000)
Over 33.4 million people are infected with HIV/AIDS worldwide
Healthy skin is an excellent barrier against HIV and other viruses and bacteria.
HIV cannot enter the body through unbroken skin.