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Health and Development. Prenatal Nutrition. Prenatal Nutrition:

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Prenatal Nutrition:

  • Maternal nutrition during pregnancy affects both the health of the mother and the growing fetus. Requirements for calories and specific nutrients are increased for the baby's growth and proper development. These needs can be met by increasing healthful food consumption and specific nutrient supplementation. --
  • What does it consist of?
  • Prenatal Nutrition mainly consist of vitamins and health supplements, but it also has a great deal to do with physical fitness and health.
  • Why is it important?
  • If proper health precautions are taken to keep the woman healthy it then keeps the baby healthy which leads to less complications in birth.

Essential Vitamins

  • Calcium -Has been shown to decrease blood pressure .
  • -Recommended daily intake is 1,000-1,300 mg a day.
  • Folic Acid -Prevents neural tube defects.
  • -should take 0.4-0.8 mg of folic acid one month before conception.
  • -The recommended amount to be taken daily is 600 mcg. It can be received by eating green leafy vegetables, liver, citrus fruits and whole wheat bread.
  • Iron -Low levels of Iron associate with preterm delivery and low birth weight.
  • -The recommended daily intake is 30 mg per day.
  • Vitamin A -High intake associates with cranial-neural crest defects.
  • -Recommended daily intake is 5,000iu per day.
  • Vitamin D -High doses can be toxic.
  • -Recommended daily intake is 5 mcg per day.

Other Prenatal Precautions

  • Artificially sweetened foods and drinks have been associated with some fetal tissue problems.
  • Large doses of Caffeine intake show an association with low birth weight. Consumption should be limited to 150-300 mg per day.
  • Dairy products, meat spreads and eggs should be avoided because there are easy possibilities of contamination.
  • All fruits and vegetables must be washed before consumption to avoid contamination.
  • Herbal teas should be limited. Teas with citrus peel, ginger, lemon balm and rose hips are safe in moderation. Teas containing chamomile, licorice, peppermint or raspberry should be avoided because they are considered “unsafe in pregnancy”
  • Meats need to be cooked all the way through to avoid contamination.
  • High intakes of seafood should be avoided because high levels of mercury in fish can lead to neurologic abnormalities in women and their infants.
  • Genetics: Is the study of heredity and variation in organisms
  • Inherited traits: height, hair color, eye color, skin color,
  • Full siblings get half their genes from each parent. Two siblings may have to exact same gene, but in a family with many children, half will have that gene and half will not
  • Ex: Two siblings have brown hair like their father, but one child will have red hair like their fathers father.
genetic disorders
Genetic Disorders
  • Down Syndrome- is a disorder that is caused by three copies of chromosome 21

- side affects: hearing loss, heart abnormalities, muscle weakness, and slow to develop language.

  • Dominant disorders:

- Tourette's syndrome: those who inherit Tourette's experience uncontrollable tics, explosive outbursts, occasional twitches, and impulses to speak inappropriately.

inherited diseases
Inherited Diseases
  • Autism: Is a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction. Autism runs in families. Children of someone who has autism have a very good chance of getting some form of autism. Twins are also at a risk for getting autism
  • Heart Disease: familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) , also known as high cholesterol, is genetic, and 80% of the time goes undetected. If a relative of yours has FH you are at high risk of getting some form of heart disease. Heart disease is sometimes inherited, and is usually caused by a change in a single gene. One copy of that gene in a parent is enough cause it in the child.
inherited diseases1
Inherited Diseases
  • Huntington's disease: Huntington disease is a progressive brain disorder that causes uncontrolled movements, emotional problems, and loss of thinking ability. This condition is inherited by one copy of the altered gene in each cell that can cause the disorder. An affected person usually inherits the altered gene from one affected parent. The longer the gene is passed on the early the symptoms appear. The patient usually only lives 15-20 after first showing symptoms

Good nutrition is an essential part of healthy brain development.

  • Babies who don’t get adequate prenatal nutrition may have a deficit in behavioral and cognitive development.
  • Poor nutrition early in a developing brain can result in consequences such as:
    • Slow language development
    • A lower IQ
    • Poor performance in school in the future
    • Fine motor development

What food gives the brain:

-Glucose: what your brain uses for energy

-Lipids and amino acids

-Nutrients (such as iron, B vitamins and zinc) that are good for the processes in a person’s endocrine system.

  • Certain fats are necessary for your brain’s specialized tissue to function.
    • These fats include: gangliosides, sphingolipids, and DHA.
  • There are many specific functions that nutrients provide.
    • For example: a lack of DHA can affect the release of neurotransmitters, whereas iron affects the synthesis of neurotransmitters.
    • Iron is a necessary nutrient that keeps a good amount of “oxygen-carrying red blood cells”(National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families).

Kids need a good amount of fat in their diets early in their lives because of how fast the myelin sheath develops.

  • Babies get the amount of fat necessary, as well as other nutrients, for healthy growth and brain development when they are fed breast milk over formula.
  • When a parent switches their baby over to formula, it is important to look for one that includes a sufficient amount of iron necessary to continue healthy brain development.
poverty in the usa united states census bureau www worldhunger org
Poverty in the USAUnited States Census
  • In 2010, 46.9 million people were in poverty, up from 37.3 million in 2007 -- the fourth consecutive annual increase in the number of people in poverty .
  • The 2010 poverty rate was 15.1 percent, up from 12.5 percent in 1997.
  • The 2010 poverty rate for Hispanics was 26.6 percent, for Blacks 27.4 percent.
  • In 2010, the poverty rate increased for children under age 18 from 20.7 percent to 22.0 percent
  • 20.5 million Americans live in extreme poverty.
    • This means their family’s cash income is less than half of the poverty line, or about $10,000 a year for a family of four
  • 49.9 million people or 16.3 percent of the American people, do not have medical insurance
effects of poverty on children www princeton edu
Effects of Poverty on
  • Inadequate nutrition
  • Lower quality of schools
  • Fewer learning experiences
  • Lack of access to friends, services, and jobs
  • Instability of residence
    • Homelessness
    • Dangerous streets
  • Exposure to environmental toxins
  • Family violence
impact of low socioeconomic status on health www apa org
Impact of Low Socioeconomic Status on
  • Low SES is associated with increased morbidity and mortality .
  • Low income individuals are 2-5 times more likely to suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder than those in the top SES bracket .
  • Within families, economic hardship can lead to marital distress and disrupted parenting that in turn may increase mental health problems among children, such as depression, substance abuse and behavior problems .
  • Educational and employment opportunities may be hindered by mental health problems
  • Access to health insurance and preventive services are part of the reason for socioeconomic health disparities
  • Those with low SES often experience barriers to obtaining mental health services, including lack of or limited access to mental health care, child care and transportation