Risk management
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Risk management. 65. Guatemala, 2005. This session will look at how risks from hazards are managed and can be mitigated. 30 minutes. Session objectives. !. The key learning objectives of this session are to form an understanding of:

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30 minutes

Risk management

  • 65

Guatemala, 2005

This session will look at how risks from hazards are managed and can be mitigated

30 minutes


30 minutes

Session objectives

!

  • The key learning objectives of this session are to form an

  • understanding of:

  • 1. security and natural hazards: overview of the different types of hazards

  • risk mapping: assessment of the nature of hazards and the vulnerability of the affected population

  • 3. risk management: ways of supporting the existing risk management measures


30 minutes

Session objectives

!

  • The key learning objectives of this session are to form an

  • understanding of:

  • 1. security and natural hazards: overview of the different types of hazards

  • risk mapping: assessment of the nature of hazards and the vulnerability of the affected population

  • 3. risk management: ways of supporting the existing risk management measures


30 minutes

Defining risk

www.unisdr.org

Risk is expressed by the notation

Hazards x Vulnerability = Risk

e.g. landslide x high-risk location = damaged house

Hazard: a natural or man-made event causing damage

Vulnerability:the conditions which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards.

Risk:the probability of harmful consequences


30 minutes

Displaced & non-displaced populations

Risks must be mapped for all of the transitional settlement and reconstruction optionsof displaced and non-displaced populations affected by conflict and natural disaster:

Non-displaced populations

Displaced populations

Host families

Occupancy with no legal status

Urban self-settlement

House tenant

Rural self-settlement

Apartment tenant

Collective centres

Land tenant

Self-settled camps

Apartment owner-occupier

Planned camps

House owner-occupier


30 minutes

Types of hazards

It is important to recognize that different hazards create different types of disaster.

Emergency risk assessment and management should cover the

two major types of hazards:

Type 1: security hazards

Type 2: natural hazards


30 minutes

Types of hazards

It is important to recognize that different hazards create different types of disaster.

Emergency risk assessment and management should cover the

two major types of hazards:

Type 1: security hazards

Type 2: natural hazards


30 minutes

Type 1: Security hazards

  • There are two basic types of security hazards: ongoing conflicts

  • and potential conflicts

  • Security hazards include:

  • communal violence

  • civil unrest

  • conflict resources

  • sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV)

  • wars

  • ethnic conflicts

Conflicts may occur in areas suffering from natural disasters


30 minutes

Recognising security hazards

  • There are many potential hazards particularly associated with conflicts, that all pose significant and variable levels of risk to the built environment

  • 1. Hazards associated with low intensity conflicts

  • vandalism and arson

  • small arms fire, artillery and rocket fire,aerial bombardment

  • area denial weapons e.g. mines, booby traps

  • UXOs (Unexploded Ordinance) or MECs (Munitions and Explosives of Concern)

  • 2. Additional hazards associated with high intensity conflicts

  • high powered weapons: cluster munitions, depleted uranium


30 minutes

Proximity to security threats

www.unhcr.org

The location of a buildingmay mean it is particularly vulnerable to either direct or indirect damage:

  • proximity to the front line of a conflict

  • a building that occupies a strategically important territory may become a direct target for direct military attack

  • UNHCR recommends that camps for refugees be set back at least 50km from any international border, following the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) Convention:

  • ‘…it is recommended that they (IDPs or refugees) be settled at a reasonable distance from international borders as well as other potentially sensitive areas such a military installations…’

Handbook for Emergencies

(UNHCR, 2007)


30 minutes

Types of hazards

It is important to recognize that different hazards create different types of disaster.

Emergency risk assessment and management should cover the

two major types of hazards:

Type 1: security hazards

Type 2: natural hazards


30 minutes

Type 2: Natural hazards

  • 68

Natural disasters are often caused by a combination of hazards, e.g. earthquakes and fires

Natural disasters may occur in insecureenvironments


30 minutes

Type 2: Natural hazards

World distribution of disasters by type (1991-2005)

Transitional settlement and reconstruction after natural disasters

(United Nations, 2008)

Source: EM-DAT Emergency events data-base


30 minutes

Session objectives

  • 217

!

  • The key learning objectives of this session are to form an

  • understanding of:

  • 1. security and natural hazards: overview of the different types of hazards

  • risk mapping: assessment of the nature of hazards and the vulnerability of the affected population

  • 3. risk management: ways of supporting the existing risk management measures


30 minutes

Develop a risk map

The objective is to develop with the participation of communities a risk map that integrates:

  • hazard assessment

  • vulnerability assessment


30 minutes

Hazard assessment

Nicaragua, 2007

  • 5 variables to help assess hazards:

  • 1. frequency

  • e.g. is there a seasonal pattern?

  • 2. magnitude or intensity

  • e.g. what is a ‘normal’ vs. ‘extreme’ circumstance?

  • 3. duration

  • e.g. how long will flood waters remain?

  • 4. area of extent

  • e.g. where are the high, medium and low risk areas?

  • 5. speed of onset

  • e.g. does the hazard occur rapidly without warning?


30 minutes

Vulnerability assessment

Transitional settlement and reconstruction after natural disasters

(United Nations, 2008)

Example of zones of housing damage, and population movements between zones, following an earthquake


30 minutes

Vulnerability and livelihoods assets

  • The vulnerability of a population depends on their capacity

  • to cope with hazards

  • Their livelihoods assets should be taken into account:

  • humancapital - people’s existing capacities and transfer of skills from the aid community

  • socialcapital - quality of relationship between beneficiaries and aid agencies

  • naturalcapital - preservation of the local environment (eg. measures taken to reduce the consumption of fuel wood)

  • physicalcapital - availability of materials and workforce for reconstruction

  • financialcapital - availability and timing of funds

Transitional Settlement: Displaced Populations

(Corsellis and Vitale, 2005)


30 minutes

Risk mapping

Risk mapping needs to be maintained and developed as part of a plan for risk management


30 minutes

Session objectives

!

  • The key learning objectives of this session are to form an

  • understanding of:

  • 1. security and natural hazards: overview of the different types of hazards

  • risk mapping: assessment of the nature of hazards and the vulnerability of the affected population

  • 3. risk management: ways of supporting the existing risk management measures


30 minutes

Existing risk management

  • Traditional existing risk management mechanisms often exist for:

  • construction

  • sites

  • materials

  • community response

  • early warning

  • These different mechanisms need to be:

  • identified

  • understood

  • supported

Indonesia, 2005


30 minutes

Supporting risk management

  • Supporting sustainablerisk management mechanisms to prevent

  • future disasters requires the involvement of all stakeholders

  • including the population, industry and government.

  • The role of external agencies is to support indigenous capacity

  • and work with communities to support their efforts and build

  • their capacities.

  • Risk management and mitigation measures could include:

  • regulations

  • e.g. improved planning codes

  • education

  • e.g.technical inspectors and information centres

  • incentives

  • e.g. subsidies for safer construction

Guatemala, 2005


30 minutes

Discussion

Key point

Plan the steps that you would take in developing with a community a sustainable hazard map.

step 1. …

step 2. …

step 3. …

step 4. …

Discussion

in groups

Each group agrees a key point


30 minutes

Bibliography

www.unisdr.org

www.proventionconsortium.org/CRA_toolkit

‘Tools for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction’ (Benson and Twigg, 2007)

‘Handbook for Emergencies’ (UNHCR, 2007)

‘Transitional Settlement: Displaced Populations’ (Corsellis and Vitale, 2005)