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Part 3 Basic Leadership Skills. McGONAGLE, WILLIAM L. U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Liberty (AGTR-5) Place and date: International waters, Eastern Mediterranean, 8-9 June 1967. Citation : For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and

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Part 3 Basic Leadership Skills


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    1. Part 3 Basic Leadership Skills

    2. McGONAGLE, WILLIAM L. U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Liberty (AGTR-5) Place and date: International waters, Eastern Mediterranean, 8-9 June 1967. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sailing in international waters, the Liberty was attacked without warning by jet fighter aircraft and motor torpedo boats which inflicted many casualties among the crew and caused extreme damage to the ship. Although severely wounded during the first air attack, Capt. McGonagle remained at his battle station on the badly damaged bridge and, with full knowledge of the seriousness of his wounds, subordinated his own welfare to the safety and survival of his command. Steadfastly refusing any treatment which would take him away from his post, he calmly continued to exercise firm command of his ship. Despite continuous exposure to fire, he maneuvered his ship, directed its defense, supervised the control of flooding and fire, and saw to the care of the casualties. Capt. McGonagle's extraordinary valor under these conditions inspired the surviving members of the Liberty's crew, many of them seriously wounded, to heroic efforts to overcome the battle damage and keep the ship afloat. Subsequent to the attack, although in great pain and weak from the loss of blood, Captain McGonagle remained at his battle station and continued to command his ship for more than 17 hours. It was only after rendezvous with a U.S. destroyer that he relinquished personal control of the Liberty and permitted himself to be removed from the bridge. Even then, he refused much needed medical attention until convinced that the seriously wounded among his crew had been treated. Capt. McGonagle's superb professionalism, courageous fighting spirit, and valiant leadership saved his ship and many lives. His actions sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.

    3. Reading Objectives: • The student will comprehend how to provide constructive feedback. • The student will comprehend how to properly use punishment. • The student will comprehend how to use delegation. • The student will comprehend team building for work teams. • The student will comprehend how to build high performance teams through the rocket model. • The student will comprehend how to use development planning effectively. • The student will comprehend how to properly coach subordinates. • The student will comprehend how to use empowerment to achieve team goals.

    4. Discussion Objectives: • Discuss the various components which go into constructive feedback. • Discuss how punishment can help mission accomplishment and the limits it must have. • Discuss the proper ways to use delegation. • Discuss the various methods of effective team building, including using the rocket model. • Discuss ways to maximize effectiveness through development planning. • Discuss the best ways to coach followers. • Discuss the ways to use empowerment and when to use them. • Discuss the steps and considerations involved in providing counseling.

    5. Providing Constructive Feedback • Make it Helpful • Be Specific • Be Descriptive • Be Timely • Be Flexible • Give Positive as well as Negative Feedback • Avoid Blame or Embarrassment

    6. Punishment • Myths surrounding punishment • Punishment is an ineffective tool. • Punishment is unethical • Punishment does not change behavior in the long run • Punishment, Satisfaction and Performance. • Research shows that when punishment is given on a consistent, fair basis, it has no real effect on follower satisfaction. • It is tough to say exactly what effect punishment has on job performance. • Administering Punishment • Punishment is administered to correct a certain detrimental behavior. • Not every behavior like this is punished, and those that are punished are punished in varying degrees. • Leaders tend to make internal attributions about a follower’s sub-standard behavior and are very likely to fall into the fundamental attribution error. • When giving punishment, a leader should make sure that the followers clearly understand the rationale behind the punishment and what they need to do to rectify their behavior. • Be careful not to over rely on punishment or rewards to correct all problems.

    7. Accountability, authority, responsibility, and the chain of command • Responsibility • Is assigned, assumed, or conferred. • Can not be transferred. • New responsibilities can be created through delegation. • Accountability • Is always extant to every responsibility. • You are held accountable for your actions, not your intent. • Authority • Power or control to act on and complete a responsibility. • Unlike responsibility, authority can be delegated. • Individuals with responsibilities in excess of their authorities should be expected to fail. • Military runs smoothest and your chance of getting inside the enemy’s OODA loop are greatest when authority is delegated to the lowest appropriate level. • Chain of Command • Both a structure and a process • Defines an individual’s responsibility, authority, and accountability.

    8. Delegating • Why Delegating is Important. • Delegation Frees Times for Other Activities • Delegation develops followers • Delegation strengthens the organization. • Common Reasons to Avoid Delegation • Delegation takes too much time. • Delegation is risky • The job will not be done well • The task is a desirable one • Others are already too busy • Principles of effective delegation • Decide what to delegate • Decider whom to delegate it to • Make the assignment clear and specific • Assign an objective, not a procedure • Allow autonomy, but monitor performance • Give credit, not blame

    9. Building High performance Teams: • Mission • The first thing a leader must do when building a team is to clearly outline the mission. • Talent • Norms • Leaders then have to set up the norms of the group through expectations and rules. • Buy-in • Must get the followers to buy into the idea of the team. • Power • Leader must make sure that they have enough power over resources, time, and decision making to accomplish the mission. • Morale • Team conflict can derail any mission. • Leader must communicate with the team and try and stomp out conflict before it arises. • Having regular discussions and communication with the team is a good way to see if/how conflict is beginning to rise. • Results • Results are a reflection on the cohesiveness of a team and how they used teamwork. • If a team had less than desirable results, then to improve performance it is necessary to look at all the components and see which ones need work.

    10. Development Planning • It is important for a leader not only to be concerned with developing their followers, but also developing themselves. • Conducting a GAPS (goals, abilities, perceptions, standards) analysis. • Goals • Abilities • Perceptions • Identifying and Prioritizing Development Needs: Gaps of Gaps • After looking at your GAPS analysis make sure to single out your biggest developmental needs. • Bridging the Gaps: Building a Development Plan • Step 1: Career and development objectives • Step 2: Criteria for success • Step 3: Action steps • Step 4: Whom to involve and reassess dates • Step 5: Stretch Assignments • Step 6: Resources • Step 7: Reflect with a Partner • Reflecting on Learnings: Modifying Development Plans • Take time to look and see if your end goals are still the right ones. • Transferring Learnings to New Environments • Your development plan should be constantly evolving. • A good way to solidify your development is teach what you have learned to others.

    11. Coaching • Forging a partnership • First step in informal coaching is to establish a relationship which is built on mutual trust and respect. • It is easiest to build that kind of relationship with high credibility. • Inspiring commitment: Conducting a GAPS Analysis • Similar to a regular GAPS analysis, only from the perspective of the follower. • Growing Skills: Creating Development and Coaching Plans • Once the goals are established, a development plan needs to be developed, almost identical to the kind from “development planning” section. • Promoting Persistence: Helping Followers Stick to Their Plans. • It is not enough just to create a plan, a leader has to make sure that the follower sticks to it. • Transferring Skills: Creating a Learning Environment. • Leaders need to create an environment that fosters learning so that development can become an on-going process.

    12. Empowerment • The psychological Components of Empowerment • Poorly implemented, empowerment does not seem to be a good tool to increase motivation. • The author’s believe empowerment helps reduce stress and increase learning for followers. Fleet experience may indicate that it can at times increase stress but still improve learning. • Empowering followers can also infuse them with the confidence needed to make decisions and step up to challenges. • Six Best Practices of Empowerment • Do we really want or need empowerment? • Creating a clear vision, goals, and accountabilities • Developing others • Delegating decision making to the followers • Leading by example • Empowerment must be systematic to be successful.

    13. Counseling • BUPERS 1610.10B is the official Navy guidance on counseling • Objectives. • Counseling should set out to accomplish five major objectives. • Identify the member’s strengths and weaknesses. • Point out shortcomings and how to develop them. • Present a performance growth plan, if needed. • Make sure that the member has a clear understanding of where their performance stands. • Ensure that the member knows what is expected for the next period of counseling and how to achieve this. • Preparing for the counseling session. • Counselor • Decide on the best time and place to host the counseling. • Gather the appropriate information and materials. • Review the objectives of the counseling. • Plan the approach that you will take to achieve the objectives. • Member • Complete a personal self-assessment, whether you are required to or not. • Gather relevant materials on your performance during the review period. • .

    14. Counseling • Suggestions for conducting counseling. • Techniques • Ask member for own performance appraisal before giving your own. • Alternate between yourself and the member in who gives appraisal first. • Discuss strengths and accomplishments along with areas that need improvement. • Discuss the member’s complete evaluation and counseling record. • Guidelines • Build and maintain a rapport with the member. Be sure to “be yourself” • Make sure that you accept what they have to say as a person, does not necessarily mean that you have to agree with it. • Clearly explain the purpose and objectives of the counseling. • Encourage the member to engage in two way conversation. • Use good listening techniques and do not interrupt the member. • Do not engage in an argument or confrontation. • Focus on performance, not personality • Focus on future expectations along with past performance. • This is a method of reinforcing the Navy’s expectations to the member, not a substitution for punishment. • Know when to terminate the counseling session. It should conclude on a positive note. • Follow-up • Review and summarize the counseling session. Ask the member for comments to make sure they understand.

    15. Questions?

    16. Interactional Framework

    17. The Action-Observation-Reflection Model • Making the most of experience is key to developing one’s leadership ability. • The theory shows that leadership development is enhanced when the experience involves three different processes: • Action • Observation • Reflection • Spiral of experience: Colin Powell’s example. • OODA loop.

    18. Another Way to Look at Power Positional (Managerial) • Legitimate • Reward • Coercive • Expert • Referent Compliance Resistance Commitment Personal (Leadership)

    19. Types of Influence Tactics • Influence Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) assesses nine types of influence tactics: • Rational persuasion • Inspirational appeals • Consultation • Ingratiation • Personal appeals • Exchange • Coalition tactics • Pressure tactics • Legitimizing tactics

    20. Positive Forms of Leadership • Authentic leadership: Grounded on “to thine own self be true.” • It has gained momentum because of these beliefs: • Enhancing self-awareness. • Promoting transparency and openness. • Fostering more inclusive structures and practices. • Servant leadership: Leader’s role is to serve others. • Subject to criticism for its tendency to suggest that serving others is an end in itself.

    21. When Good People Do Bad Things • Ways people with firm moral principles may behave badly without feeling guilt or remorse: • Moral justification • Euphemistic labeling • Advantageous comparison • Displacement of responsibility • Diffusion of responsibility • Disregard or distortion of consequences • Dehumanization • Attribution of blame • More focus on this when you take Leadership and Ethics in 2 years.

    22. Great Man Theory • The Great Man Theory attempted to prove that leaders and followers are fundamentally different. • Conclusions of the research: • Leaders were not qualitatively different than followers. • Intelligence, initiative, stress tolerance, responsibility, friendliness, and dominance, were moderately related to leadership success.

    23. The Five Factor Model of Personality

    24. The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence • The theory focuses on what a leader does when solving complex mental problems. • The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence consists of: • Analytic intelligence • Practical intelligence • Creative intelligence • Divergent thinking • Convergent thinking

    25. Organizational Competency Models Hardest to change • Organizational competency model four major categories: • Intrapersonal skills (adapting to stress, goal orientation, adhering to rules – not interaction). • Interpersonal skills (communicating, building relationships). • Leadership skills (building teams, getting results through others). • Business skills (analyzing, making decisions, thinking ahead). Easiest to learn Does NROTC address this?

    26. Development Planning • Insight about development needs is important. • Development plans that address the skills identified as having the highest payoffs need to be built. • A written plan seems to aid in the continuance of development. • Good development plans capitalize upon on-the-job experiences to hone needed leadership skills. • Leaders can build accountability by: • Having different people provide ongoing feedback on the action steps taken to develop a skill. • Periodically reviewing progress on development plans with the boss.

    27. Development Planning • It is important for a leader not only to be concerned with developing their followers, but also developing themselves. • Conducting a GAPS (goals, abilities, perceptions, standards) analysis. • Goals • Abilities • Perceptions • Identifying and Prioritizing Development Needs: Gaps of Gaps • After looking at your GAPS analysis make sure to single out your biggest developmental needs. • Bridging the Gaps: Building a Development Plan • Step 1: Career and development objectives • Step 2: Criteria for success • Step 3: Action steps • Step 4: Whom to involve and reassess dates • Step 5: Stretch Assignments • Step 6: Resources • Step 7: Reflect with a Partner • Reflecting on Learnings: Modifying Development Plans • Take time to look and see if your end goals are still the right ones. • Transferring Learnings to New Environments • Your development plan should be constantly evolving. • A good way to solidify your development is teach what you have learned to others.

    28. Coaching • Coaching: Process of “equipping people with the tools, knowledge, and opportunities needed to develop and become more successful.” • Informal coaching: Takes place whenever a leader helps followers to change their behaviors. • Formal coaching: Programs provide a services similar to those of informal coaching for executives and managers in leadership positions. • In the military does your coach have to be senior?

    29. Mentoring • Mentoring: Personal relationship in which a more experienced mentor acts as a guide, role model, and sponsor of a less experienced protégé. • Informal mentoring • Formal mentoring • Leadership practitioners should look for opportunities to build mentoring relationships with senior leaders whenever possible.

    30. Eleven Motivational Approaches

    31. Situational Approaches • Operant Approach: • Reward, Punishment, Contingent rewards or punishments, Noncontingent rewards and punishments, and Extinction. • Empowerment: • Top-down approach to delegation • Bottom-up approach to delegation • Macro psychological components: • Motivation • Learning • Stress • Micro components of empowerment: • Self-determination • Meaning • Competence • Influence

    32. Developmental Stages of Groups • Stages of groups development: • Forming • Storming • Norming • Performing • These stages are important because: • People are in many more “leaderless” groups than they may realize. • The potential relationships between leadership behaviors and group cohesiveness and productivity. • Alternate view (Punctuated equilibrium): Project teams muddle through, have a flurry of activity, reexamine plans, and complete tasks.

    33. Building High performance Teams: • Mission • The first thing a leader must do when building a team is to clearly outline the mission. • Talent • Norms • Leaders then have to set up the norms of the group through expectations and rules. • Buy-in • Must get the followers to buy into the idea of the team. • Power • Leader must make sure that they have enough power over resources, time, and decision making to accomplish the mission. • Morale • Team conflict can derail any mission. • Leader must communicate with the team and try and stomp out conflict before it arises. • Having regular discussions and communication with the team is a good way to see if/how conflict is beginning to rise. • Results • Results are a reflection on the cohesiveness of a team and how they used teamwork. • If a team had less than desirable results, then to improve performance it is necessary to look at all the components and see which ones need work.

    34. Accountability, authority, responsibility, and the chain of command • Responsibility • Is assigned, assumed, or conferred. • Can not be transferred. • New responsibilities can be created through delegation. • Accountability • Is always extant to every responsibility. • You are held accountable for your actions, not your intent. • Authority • Power or control to act on and complete a responsibility. • Unlike responsibility, authority can be delegated. • Individuals with responsibilities in excess of their authorities should be expected to fail. • Military runs smoothest and your chance of getting inside the enemy’s OODA loop are greatest when authority is delegated to the lowest appropriate level. • Chain of Command • Both a structure and a process • Defines an individual’s responsibility, authority, and accountability.