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Principles of Visual Design 2720. Instructor: Brian Schrank. Indirect Control. and Interactivity. W hat is Indirect Control?. W hat is Indirect Control?. Techniques to guide the player’s emotions, thoughts and actions. W hat is Indirect Control?.

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Indirect Control


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    1. Principles of Visual Design 2720. Instructor: Brian Schrank Indirect Control and Interactivity

    2. What is Indirect Control?

    3. What is Indirect Control? • Techniques to guide the player’s emotions, thoughts and actions

    4. What is Indirect Control? • Techniques to guide the player’s emotions, thoughts and actions • Range from subtle (transparent) to obvious (opaque)

    5. What is Indirect Control? • Techniques to guide the player’s emotions, thoughts and actions • Range from subtle (transparent) to obvious (opaque) • May be diegetic or extra-diegetic

    6. What is Indirect Control? It’s easier to determine when these techniques fail than succeed.

    7. How Does Interactivity Affect Indirect control? • Player is co-author of videogame story • More willing to overlook inconsistencies of videogame world because he has greater ownership than non-interactive media

    8. How Does Interactivity Affect Indirect control? • Player is co-author of videogame story • More willing to overlook inconsistencies of videogame world because he has greater ownership than non-interactive media • In fact, if he can’t adequately be indirectly controlled he won’t be able to progress in the game.

    9. Formal vs. Material Constraints Michael Mateas: In order to invoke a sense of agency, an interactive experience must strike a balance between the material and formal constraints. (2005)

    10. Formal vs. Material Constraints Formal Constraints are the dramatic Structure and Possibilities of the game. Material Constraints are the Affordances of the game.

    11. Formal vs. Material Constraints Formal Constraints of Quake: • Everything that moves will try to kill you • You should try to kill everything • You should try to move through as many levels as possible

    12. Formal vs. Material Constraints Material Constraints of Quake: • Player can run swiftly and smoothly through space • Player can pick up a wide array of lethal weapons • Player can fire these weapons at monsters that adhere to the “kill or be killed” ethos

    13. Equations for “un-fun” Material Constraints (Avenues of agency)

    14. Equations for “un-fun” Material Constraints > Formal Constraints (Avenues of agency) (Range of Challenges and Constraints)

    15. Equations for “un-fun” Material Constraints > Formal Constraints = Confusion/Lost (Avenues of agency) (Range of Challenges and Constraints)

    16. Equations for “un-fun” Formal Constraints (Range of Challenges and Constraints)

    17. Equations for “un-fun” Formal Constraints > Material Constraints (Range of Challenges and Constraints) (Avenues of agency)

    18. Equations for “un-fun” Formal Constraints > Material Constraints = Frustration (Range of Challenges and Constraints) (Avenues of agency)

    19. Equation for Fun Formal Constraints = Material Constraints = Agency/Fun (Range of Challenges and Constraints) (Avenues of agency)

    20. Jesse Schell puts it simply... Choices > Desires = Confused/Lost

    21. Jesse Schell puts it simply... Choices > Desires = Confused/Lost Desires > Choices = Frustrated

    22. Jesse Schell puts it simply... Choices > Desires = Confused/Lost Desires > Choices = Frustrated Choices = Desires = Fun

    23. To put it another way... The Formal Constraints provide the framework for the player to act while the Material Constraints provide the means to act

    24. To put it another way... The Formal Constraints provide the framework for the player to act while the Material Constraints provide the means to act • It is in the boundary between these two domains where INDIRECTCONTROL comes onto play.

    25. Methods of Indirect Control • Videogame Semiotics • Implicit Goals • Explicit Goals • Rules • Semiotics • Visual Hierarchy • Music • Sound Effects

    26. Methods of Indirect Control • Videogame Semiotics • Implicit Goals • Explicit Goals • Rules • Semiotics • Visual Hierarchy • Music • Sound Effects

    27. Methods of Indirect Control1. Videogame Semiotics WarioWare Touched! (2005 for Nintendo DS) Referencing past videogame experience...

    28. Methods of Indirect Control1. Videogame Semiotics • Leveraging Player’s previous videogame experience • Videogame Genres • Platformers • Formal Constraints • You must traverse through precipitous environments • Enemies are obstacles to the goal (which is usually to reach a point in space) • Material Constraints • You will have acrobatic, dexterous, or exaggerated abilities of motion • You will have weapons appropriate to kill enemies (often using space, such as jumping on their head, rolling into them, etc.)

    29. Methods of Indirect Control1. Videogame Semiotics Platformers...

    30. Methods of Indirect Control1. Videogame Semiotics • Action games: shoot while being hit, strafe to hiding spot, take health, repeat • RPGs: send fast character to lure enemy from group, all characters kill enemy, take health, repeat • Strategy Games: order peasants, send to work, order soldiers, send to perimeters, repeat while slowly expanding the perimeters (up to the point of catastrophic win/lose); OR: move x archers to tower y every n minutes to head off the enemy camel musketeers from the east who arrive every n minutes Lindley (2005)

    31. Methods of Indirect Control1. Videogame Semiotics Lindley (2005)

    32. Methods of Indirect Control • Videogame Semiotics • Implicit Goals • Explicit Goals • Rules • Semiotics • Visual Hierarchy • Music • Sound Effects

    33. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals

    34. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals Start

    35. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals Start End

    36. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals Start End

    37. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals 1) Understand What to do 2) Understand How to do it 3) Have Skills to do it

    38. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals 1) Understand What to do 2) Understand How to do it 3) Have Skills to do it In each micro-game in WarioWare this process is completed only once, so in this way it very much like our game...

    39. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals 1) Understand What to do 2) Understand How to do it 3) Have Skills to do it Start What? How? Skills End

    40. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals Most games have a cyclical process within these steps... Start What? How? Skills End

    41. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals Most games have a cyclical process within these steps... Start What? How? Skills End

    42. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals Like our game, WarioWare Inc. also uses a single joystick and single “action” button.

    43. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals

    44. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals

    45. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals

    46. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals

    47. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals

    48. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals • Leveraging Worldly Knowledge • Hammer = Hit • Finger & Nose = Pick • Button = Push

    49. Methods of Indirect Control2. Implicit Goals • Leveraging Worldly Knowledge • Hammer = Hit • Finger & Nose = Pick • Button = Push • Raph Koster says games teach us to pull manageable models out of reality -mastering them is the fun part (Theory of Fun, 2005).

    50. Methods of Indirect Control • Videogame Semiotics • Implicit Goals • Explicit Goals • Rules • Semiotics • Visual Hierarchy • Music • Sound Effects