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AMERICANS THROUGHTHE CENTURIES PowerPoint Presentation By Beth Rice ED 608
Level: Fifth Grade Unit covers: American Heritage Identify significant individuals from the region’s past and explain their influence on people from different times and their impact on the cultural heritage of the United States AMERICANS THROUGHTHE CENTURIES
OBJECTIVES • The students will identify significant individuals from the • past in North American and explain their contributions to • the cultural heritage of the United States. • After reading about individuals who represent a cultural • group, the students will draw inferences about the • experiences, problems, and opportunities the group • encountered in the past. • Students will use a time line to explore cause and effect • relationships in the lives of famous Americans.
FIELD TRIP TO SERPENT MOUND • New radiocarbon dates suggest that Serpent Mound, a one-quarter-mile-long earthen effigy of a snake in south-central Ohio, was built as many as 2,000 years later than previously thought. The effigy had been attributed to the Adena culture (1000-100 B.C.) based on the presence of Adena burials nearby. The Adena people, who lived in an area stretching from the Midwest to the Atlantic coast, collected and began domesticating plants, improved methods of food storage, and buried their dead in mounds.
FIELD TRIP MATERIALS Permission slips signed by parents Packed lunches and drinks Notebook and pen or pencil Cameras (Optional)
RELATED WEB SITES • http://www.radiotheatre.com/product/squanto/ • http://www.mayflowerfamilies.com/colonial_life/pilgrims.htm • http://www.siec.k12.in.us/~west/proj/lincoln/ • http://www.ushistory.org/franklin/index.htm • http://www.unitedstates-on-line.com/
NATIVE AMERICANS • Squanto acted as a guide and interpreter for European settlers in what is now Massachusetts, helping them explore and survive in the new territories in North America. He first aided the starving Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony in 1621, teaching them rudimentary fishing and agriculture. A year later, Squanto became ill and died while guiding members of the new Massachusetts government around Cape Cod.
NATIVE AMERICANS • The land was very different before the Puritan colonists came to settle the land. According to records of what Squanto told colonists, there were about 2000 Indians living in Plymouth before the English came, brought diseases and pushed them off their land. The population of the surrounding area in contact with the Patuxet was between twenty to twenty-five thousand native inhabitants.
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS • Cristóbal Colón • Italian mariner and navigator; widely believed to be the first European to sail across the Atlantic Ocean and successfully land on the American continent. Born Cristoforo Colombo, between August and October 1451, in Genoa, Italy.
PILGRIMS COMING TO AMERICA • The English ship, the Mayflower carried the Separatist Puritans, later known as pilgrims, to Plymouth, Mass., in 1620. The 180-ton vessel was about 12 years old.
PILGRIM SETTLERS • The Mayflower remained in New England with the colonists throughout the terrible first winter. Although the ship was cold, damp and unheated, it did provide a defense against the rigorous New England winter until houses could be completed ashore. Nevertheless, exposure, malnutrition and illness led to the death of half the group, both passengers and crewmen.
WILLIAM BRADFORD • Bradford, William (1590-1657), one of the pilgrim leaders and American colonial governors was born in England. Bradford sailed on the Mayflower in 1620, and after his arrival in America he helped found Plymouth Colony. In April 1621 he succeeded Governor John Carver as chief executive of Plymouth Colony. Except for five years, Bradford served as governor almost continuously from 1621 through 1656, having been reelected 30 times. In 1621 he negotiated a treaty with Massasoit, the chief of the Wampanoag tribe. Under the treaty, Massasoit disavowed Native American claims to the Plymouth area and pledged peace with the colonists. The first Thanksgiving Day celebration in New England was organized by Bradford in 1621. This chair is thought to have belonged to William Bradford
WILLIAM PENN • William Penn lived from 1644-1718. He was an English Quaker and the founder of the colony of Pennsylvania. • In 1681 Penn obtained from the Crown, in payment for a debt owed to his father, a grant of territory in North America. With several friends, he sailed for America in September 1682, and in October he signed a 'Great Treaty' with various Delaware chiefs at the village of Shackamaxon. He planned and named the city of Philadelphia, and for two years he governed the colony wisely and well.
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN • Benjamin Franklin lived from 1706 to 1790. He was an American printer, author, diplomat, philosopher, and scientist, whose many contributions to the cause of the American Revolution (1775-1783), and the newly formed federal government that followed, rank him among the country's greatest statesmen.
FRANKLIN’S CONTRIBUTIONS Poor Richard’s Almanack Glass Harmonica: Note the varying sizes of the glasses used ODOMETER Franklin Stove Bifocals Lightning Bolt
GEORGE WASHINGTON • George Washington was commander in chief of the Continental army during the American Revolution and first president of the United States (1789-97).
THOMAS JEFFERSON • Thomas Jefferson was the third President of the United States, from 1801 to 1809. As a member of the Continental Congress (1775-1776), Jefferson was chosen in 1776 to draft the Declaration of Independence. As a public official--legislator, diplomat, and executive--he served the province and commonwealth of Virginia and the young American republic almost 40 years. • He acquired the vast province of Louisiana and maintained neutrality in a world of war. He was hailed as the "Man of the People," because he sought to conduct the government in the popular interest, rather than in the interest of any privileged group, and, insofar as possible, in accordance with the people's will.
HARRIET TUBMAN • Harriet Tubman was born around 1820 and died in 1913. She was a slave who escaped in 1849 and became one of the most successful “conductors” on the Underground Railroad. She led more than 300 slaves to freedom, forcing the timid ahead with a loaded revolver. She was a friend of the principal abolitionists, and John Brown probably confided his Harpers Ferry plan to her. In the Civil War, Harriet Tubman attached herself to the Union forces in coastal South Carolina, serving as a nurse, laundress, and spy.
SOJOURNER TRUTH • Born into slavery in New York as Isabella Van Wagener, her mystic experiences took her into preaching. In 1843, she took the name Sojourner Truth. In the late 1840s she connected with the abolitionist movement, becoming a popular speaker. In 1850, she also began speaking on woman suffrage. Her most famous speech, Ain’t I a Woman?, was presented in 1851 at a women's rights convention in Ohio. • During the Civil War she raised food and clothing contributions for black regiments, and met Abraham Lincoln at the White House in 1864. • After the War ended, she again spoke widely, advocating for some time a "Negro State" in the west. She spoke mainly to white audiences, and mostly on religion, "Negro" and women's rights, and on temperance.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN • Abraham Lincoln was born Sunday, February 12, 1809, in a log cabin in Kentucky. His father was a carpenter and farmer. Both of Abraham's parents were members of a Baptist congregation which had separated from another church due to opposition to slavery. • As Abraham grew up, he loved to read and was constantly borrowing books from the neighbors. • Lincoln moved to New Salem, Illinois, where he lived until 1837. He impressed the residents with his character, wrestled the town bully, and earned the nickname "Honest Abe." Lincoln made an unsuccessful run for the Illinois legislature in 1832. He ran again in 1834, 1836, 1838, and 1840, and he won all 4 times. (Lincoln was a member of the Whig Party; he remained a Whig until 1856 when he became a Republican. Additionally, he studied law in his spare time and became a lawyer in 1836. • He was our sixteenth President from 1861-1865.
WILLIAM E. B. DU BOIS • W.E.B. Du Bois was the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University (1896). He was a respected sociologist and historian, but he exerted his greatest influence as a strategist in the early civil rights movement. In 1905, rejecting those who claimed that full equality for African Americans must come gradually, Du Bois became a founder of the Niagara Movement, which called for an end to racial discrimination immediately. Four years later, he helped to found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and for many years served as editor of its magazine, The Crisis.
ORVILLE & WILBUR WRIGHT Wilbur Wright was born April 16, 1867. Orville was born in Dayton, Ohio, on Aug. 19, 1871. Their father, Bishop Milton Wright of the United Brethren Church, settled permanently in Dayton about 1884. Neither Wilbur nor Orville received a high school diploma, and their formal schooling was interrupted by their interest in practical affairs, first a printing business and later, beginning in 1892, their bicycle shop. In their spare time, they read technical articles and books, and their interest in aeronautics gradually increased. Their first glider experiments were conducted at Kitty Hawk, N.C., in 1900, and they tested their second glider there in 1901. They made the first man-carrying powered flights in history on December 17, 1903.
SUSAN B. ANTHONY • Susan B. Anthony was born in 1820. Her first involvement in the world of reform was in the temperance movement. This was one of the first expressions of original feminism in the United States and it dealt with the abuses of women and children who suffered from alcoholic husbands. She later went to Syracuse to attend a series of antislavery meetings and met Elizabeth Cady Stanton. They became fast friends and she joined Stanton and Amelia Bloomer in campaigns for women's rights. In 1854, she devoted herself to the antislavery movement. In 1872, Susan demanded that women be given the same civil and political rights that had been extended to black males under the 14th and 15th amendments. She was arrested for leading a group of women to the polls in Rochester to test the right of women to vote. Although Anthony did not live to see women having the right to vote, the establishment of the 19th amendment is deeply owed to her efforts.
CHARLES LINDBERGH • Charles Lindbergh’s first solo trans-Atlantic flight in 1927 made history. In 1936, Lindbergh foresaw Hitler's threat and warned America to arm itself. He flew 50 combat missions over the Pacific, wrote five books, and won a Pulitzer in 1954.
ROSA PARKS Rosa Lee Parks was born in 1913. She had a firm and quiet strength to change things that were unjust. She served as secretary of the NAACP and later Adviser to the NAACP Youth Council, and tried to register to vote on several occasions when it was still nearly impossible to do so. Mrs. Parks was the catalyst in the Montgomery boycott, the first public confrontation which brought the name of Martin Luther King, Jr., into the ears of America.
DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929 at his family home in Atlanta, Georgia. King was an eloquent Baptist minister and leader of the civil-rights movement in America from the Mid-1950s until his death by assassination in 1968. King promoted non-violent means to achieve civil-rights reform and was awarded the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.
Colin L. Powell • Colin L. Powell is the first black Secretary of State in U.S. history. He was born in 1937 and is a retired United States Army General He was appointed National Security Adviser to President Ronald Reagan in 1987. Promoted to the rank of four-star general in April 1989, Powell was named chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under George Bush Senior, the youngest man and the first black officer to hold the nation's highest military post.
STUDENT ASSIGNMENT The famous Americans previously shown are on your PowerPoint handout. You have a handout of the following time-line. Insert the famous Americans’ names on the time-line where they would fit in chronological order.
ASSIGNMENT Choose one person or group from the previous slides and create your own time-line of the events that occurred relevant to that person or group.
ASSIGNMENT Pretend you are a newspaper reporter transformed to the period of one of the above people or groups. Write a newspaper article about the events that are occurring relevant to that person or group.
ASSIGNMENT In computer lab, go onto one of the websites shown on your presentation handout. In small groups each student will rate a website from 1 to 10 (10 being the best score) and tell why he or she rated it so.