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Apostolos I. Hatzitolios Associate Professor of Internal Medicine 1 st Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine Department of Vascular Diseases and Hypertension Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital Thessaloniki, Central Macedonia, HELLAS.
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Associate Professor of Internal Medicine
1st Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine
Department of Vascular Diseases and Hypertension
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital
Thessaloniki, Central Macedonia, HELLASRecent Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension
NHANES II 1976-1980
NHANES III (Phase 2) 1991-1994
NHANES III (Phase 1) 1988-1991Diagnosis, regulation and treatment of hypertension in USA
Journal of Hypertension 2007;25:1105-1187
Blood pressure (mmHg)
Isolated office hypertension (White coat hypertension)
Due to stress and SNS stimulation. CV risk is less than by raised office and ambulatory or home BP
but may be slightly greater than by normotension
Isolated ambulatory hypertension (Masked hypertension)
CV risk is close to that of hypertension. Due to «normal» variationof circadian rhythm, autonomic
nervous system dysfunction, physical or psychological stress, night consumption of alcohol, smoking
and sleep apnea.
3. Risk factors:
4. Symptoms of organ damage:
5. Previous antihypertensive therapy:
Signs suggesting secondary hypertension
(aortic coarctation or aorticdisease)
Signs of organ damage
Evidence of visceral obesity
[body weight (Kg)/height (m2)]
overweight ≥ 25 Kg/m2; obesity ≥ 30 Kg/m2
(standing position) ♂> 102 cm; ♀ > 88 cm
Extended evaluation (domain of the specialist)
Importance of subclinical organ damage as an intermediate stage in the continuum of vascular disease and as a determinant of total CV risk.
Lifestyle measures widely recognized to lower BP or CV
As long-term compliance with lifestyle measures is low and the BP response highly variable, patients under non pharmacological treatment should be followed-up closely to start drug therapy when needed and timely