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Persons with Down Syndrome and the Alzheimers Connection. Memory. Just a line to say I’m living, that I’m not among the dead; though I’m getting more forgetful and mixed up in my head.

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Presentation Transcript
memory
Memory

Just a line to say I’m living, that I’m not among the dead; though I’m getting more forgetful and mixed up in my head.

For sometimes I can’t remember when I stand at the foot of the stairs if I must go up for something or I’ve just come down from there.

And before the refrigerator, so often my poor mind is filled with doubt, have I just put food away or have I come to take some out?

I’ve got used to my arthritis, to my dentures I’m resigned, I can manage by bifocals, but, Oh God, I miss my mind!

definition
Definition
  • Progressive, degenerative disease of the neurological system
  • Irreversible deterioration of the intellect and emotions
  • It affects over 4 million American adults
  • It is the fourth leading cause of death in adults after heart disease, cancer, and stroke
  • Pre-senile and senile dementia are used to describe any diminished capacity to think and to understand
symptoms
Symptoms
  • Cells of the brain are affected, causing severe intellectual impairment and changes in mental and neurological functioning
  • Changes occur in the cerebral cortex – the outer layer of the brain
  • An accumulation of protein called “tangles” occur in the area of the brain that control recent short-term memory. This area of the brain is the “hippocampus”. This protein is located in the skin and intestines as well as the brain.
slide6

Healthy Neuron

Synapse

Axon

Nucleus

Cell Body

Bendrites

slide7

Plaques

Granulovacuolar

Degeneration

stages
Stages

There are

stages for the generic population

There are

Stages for persons with Down Syndrome

Each stage can last up to

years

stage one
Stage One
  • Anxiety or depression over memory loss
  • Decreased efficiency in performance
  • Defensiveness
stage two
Stage Two
  • Marked disorientation
  • Reduced capacity for speech
  • Decreased motor dexterity
stage three
Stage Three
  • Loss of self-help skills
  • Incontinence
  • Seizures develop
  • Delusional, persectory and hallucinatory behavior is exhibited
causes
Causes
  • The cause is unknown
  • Suspected causes are:

A gene in the 21st gene

Slow virus or other infectious agent

Accumulation of aluminum or other toxins

Changes in immune system relating to aging

diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • There is no single clinical test to identify Alzheimers

Other conditions must be ruled out:

Depression

Head injuries or brain tumor

Adverse drug reaction

Nutrition deficiencies

Menopause

diagnosis1
Diagnosis
  • A diagnosis of Alzheimers can be confirmed only after death by performing an autopsy
alzheimers losses
Alzheimers Losses

Language skills

Short Term Memory

New learning ability

Judgment, planning and foresight

Inhibition/impulse control

Reasoning and abstracting

Sense of intimacy

behavioral changes
Behavioral Changes

Pacing

Fearfulness

Rummaging

Sexual comments

Hand wringing

Hallucinations/Delusions

Agitation

Withdrawal

Insistence

Public Masturbation

Repeating questions

physical factors
Physical Factors
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Bowel impaction
  • Dehydration
  • Seizures
  • Pain/discomfort
  • Mood swings
strategies
Strategies
  • Provide quiet time
  • Alleviate boredom
  • Avoid many changes
  • Keep choices simple
  • keep consistent schedule
  • Reduce stimuli
  • Provide decaf beverages
  • Limit length of conversation
communication techniques
Communication Techniques
  • Make direct eye contact
  • Identify yourself
  • Use calm, clear voice
  • Eliminate background noise
  • Use short, simple sentences
  • Use one-step commands
  • Ask yes/no questions
  • Use word cues
slide21
Written Communication

Label the environment

Keep a schedule of the day

Use notes as reminders

Non-Verbal Communications

Use an open, gentle approach

Hold out items

Wave goodbye

Use expression of concern

Nod your head

use the r s
Use the R’s
  • Remain calm
  • Respond to feelings
  • Reassure the person
  • Remove yourself
  • Return later
and also
And Also:
  • Be aware of client needs, information and resources available
  • Identify aspects of disease and screen their problems
  • Provide treatment through program development
  • Advocate and refer for further treatment
programming
Programming
  • Reality Orientation:Brings information regarding time, place, person, and things
  • Sensory Stimulation: Activities are presented to accentuate a particular sense
  • Re-socialization: Uses group techniques to stress interpersonal relationships