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Chapter 9. Articulations. Articulations. Point of contact between bones. Joint - mostly very movable but some are immovable or only allow limited motions. Movable joints allow complex, highly coordinated movements. Classifications. Structural classification - joints are named according to:

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Chapter 9

Chapter 9



  • Point of contact between bones.

  • Joint- mostly very movable but some are immovable or only allow limited motions.

  • Movable joints allow complex, highly coordinated movements.


  • Structural classification- joints are named according to:

    • Type of connective tissue

    • Presence of fluid filled joint capsules

  • Functional classification-

    • Synarthroses- immovable

    • Amphiarthroses- slightly movable

    • Diarthroses- freely movable

Fibrous joints
Fibrous Joints

  • Synarthroses

  • Bones of joints fit together closely, allowing little or no movement.

    • Syndesmoses- joints in which ligaments connect two bones.

    • Sutures- found only in skull; toothlike projections from adjacent bones interlock with each other.

    • Gomphoses- between root of a tooth and the alveolar process of mandible and maxilla.

Cartilaginous joints
Cartilaginous joints

  • Bones of joints are joined together by hyaline cartilage of fibrocartilage; allow very little motion.

Synovial joints
Synovial joints

  • Freely movable joints

    • Structures:

      • Joint capsule

      • Synovial membrane

      • Articular cartilage

      • Joint cavity

      • Menisci

      • Ligaments

      • Bursae

Types of synovial joints
Types of Synovial Joints

  • Uniaxial joints

    • Hinge joints- knee, elbow

    • Pivot joints- neck/vertebrae, radius

  • Biaxial joints

    • Saddle joints- thumbs

    • Condyloid joints- hips, shoulders

Types of synovial joints1
Types of Synovial Joints

  • Multiaxial joints

    • Ball and socket joint- shoulder, femur

    • Gliding joint- wrists, vertebrae

Humeroscapular joint
Humeroscapular Joint

  • Shoulder joint

  • Most mobile joint because of glenoid cavity

  • Glenoid labrum

Elbow joint
Elbow Joint

  • Humeroradius joint

  • Humeroulnar joint

  • Both components of elbow joint surrounded by single joint capsule and stabilized by collateral ligaments.

Hip joint
Hip Joint

  • Stable joint

Knee joint
Knee Joint

  • Largest and one of the most complex and most frequently injured joints.

  • Tibiofemoral joint- supported by joint capsule, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons.

  • Permits flexion and extension

Ankle joint
Ankle Joint

  • Hinge type of synovial joint

  • Articulation between lower ends of tibia and fibula and upper part of talus.

  • Joint is “mortise” or wedge-shaped.

    • Lateral malleolus lower than medial.

Measuring range of motion
Measuring Range of Motion

  • Range of motion (ROM) assessment used to determine extent of joint injury.

  • ROM can be measured actively or passively; results of both by instrument called goniometer.

Angular movement
Angular Movement

  • Change in the size of angle between articulating bones.

    • Flexion- decreases angle between bones; bends or folds one part on another.

    • Extension- increases angle between two bones.

    • Hyperextension- extension between bones of a joint that is greater than normal.

    • Plantar flexion- increases angle between top of foot and front of leg.

Angular movement1
Angular Movement

  • Dorsi flexion- decreases angle between top of foot and front of leg.

  • Abduction- moves part away from median plan of body.

  • Adduction- moves a part toward median plane of body.

Circular movements
Circular Movements

  • Rotation- pivoting a bone on its own axis.

  • Circumduction- moves a part so that its distal end moves in a circle.

  • Supination- turns the hand palm side-up.

  • Pronation- turns the hand palm side-down.

Gliding movements
Gliding Movements

  • Simplest of all movements; articular surface of one bone moves over articular surface of another without any angular or circular movement.

Special movements
Special Movements

  • Inversion- turning sole of foot inward.

  • Eversion- turning sole outward.

  • Protraction- moves a part forward.

  • Retraction- moves part backward.

  • Elevation- moves part up.

  • Depression- lowers a part.