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Ancient Greece: The Classical Spirit. Early Greece. Early Greek Poetry. Homeric epics: long narrative poems; heroic deeds; hero who brings pride to country. Iliad and Odyssey: First masterpieces of Western literature. Heroes: Achilles and Odysseus

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early greek poetry
Early Greek Poetry
  • Homeric epics: long narrative poems; heroic deeds; hero who brings pride to country. Iliad and Odyssey: First masterpieces of Western literature.
  • Heroes: Achilles and Odysseus
  • Despite man’s frailties, his life is noble
sappho s lyric poetry
Sappho’s Lyric Poetry
  • Lyric poems: brief, expressing feelings, often accompanied by a lyre.
  • Sappho’s poems expressed her love for her women friends.
  • Lived her life on the island of Lesbos
art in early greece
Art in Early Greece
  • The Archaic period: 650-490 B.C. Progression from the Egyptian models
  • Naturalism: attempt to represent objects as they appear in nature
  • Vase painting: red-figure technique: figures left unpainted
  • Greeks’ range of feelings and actions
  • Kouros: free standing nude male youth. Rigid Egyptian poses
  • Koré: softer or female version. Clothing softened statue
the classical period1
The Classical Period
  • Opens with Greeks’ victory over Persians at Salamis in 490 B.C.
  • Golden Age: 480 B.C. and 404 B.C., Athens was defeated in the Peloponnesian Wars. Culture lasted until death of Alexander the Great.
  • Polis life: Human nature dictates life in city
  • Pericles: Delian League
women in classical athens
Women in Classical Athens
  • Excluded from public affairs
  • Household duties: organization, supervision and labor.
  • Hetaera: foreign women who worked as courtesans, entertainers and prostitutes.
  • Some hetaera highly educated
the greek temple
The Greek Temple
  • The Parthenon (447 B.C.) Dedicated to Athena
  • Post-and-lintel form
  • Entablature: decoration of the vertical column and horizontal beam
  • Orders: Styles of columns
  • Cella: enclosed inner room of temple
  • Refinements
parthenon sculptures
Parthenon Sculptures
  • Phideas: Athena statue in cella and again on the east and west pediments
  • Three Goddesses on East Pediment
  • Frieze
  • Cella frieze: low relief, noble procession of Athenian citizens depicted during the Pan Athenaic procession.
other acropolis buildings
Other Acropolis Buildings
  • Propylaea: massive gateway
  • Erechtheum: Ionic temple with two porches
  • Caryatids: Porch of the Maidens
classical humanism
Classical Humanism
  • Belief that “Man is the Measure of All Things” Protagoras.
  • Nobility of human intelligence and action
  • Human ability to understand and control the world.
  • “Secular” humanism controversial today.
the classical style
The Classical Style
  • Representing the human figure in motion: turning point for Greek sculptors.
  • Idealized, yet moving toward naturalism
greek sculpture
Greek Sculpture
  • Kritios Boy: Human figure in motion
  • Classical Style: naturalism and idealism
  • Myron’s Discobolus
  • Riace Warrior Phideas?
  • Praxiteles’ Aphrodite of Cnidos
  • Contrapposto: S curve
hellenistic style
Hellenistic Style
  • Emotionally charged realism of later Greek sculpture
  • Alexander the Great Persia and Egypt
  • Individuality
  • Lacoon and his Two Sons
greek theater
Greek Theater
  • Athens: Greek Theater
  • Themes:
  • Power of the gods
  • Course of human destiny
  • Nature of love and justice
  • Dyonisus patron god: wine, revelry and intoxication. Dyonisian festivals
greek tragedy
Greek Tragedy
  • Open-air theaters or amphitheaters
  • Wealthy citizens paid playwrights and producers
  • Yearly competition
  • Actors in front of the skene
  • Chorus: actors who danced and chanted on the orchestra, the area surrounded by the theatron
greek playwrights
Greek Playwrights
  • Thespis: One actor
  • Aeschylus: added a second actor and dialogue. Suffering and guilt led to gods
  • Sophocles: Golden Age of Athens
  • Oedipus Rex
  • Hubris
  • Catharsis
  • Euripides: realism, social commentary
  • Showed people as they were, gripped by violent passions
  • Medea
greek comedy
Greek Comedy
  • Humorous portrayal of everyday themes and characters.
  • Aristophanes: Clouds and Lysistrata
greek philosophy
Greek Philosophy
  • Philosophy: came from Greek’s fascination with rational inquiry.
  • Materialists: substance of which all matter was composed
  • Idealists: evidence of a divine and rational plan for cosmos--Pythagoras
  • Sophists: professional teachers, skeptics—Protagoras. Became cynical.
  • Founded classical Greek philosophy and never wrote a word.
  • Socratic Method
  • Gadfly of Athens—Morals worth more than life itself.
  • “The unexamined life is not worth living.”
  • Trial and death: Tried for religious and moral offenses.
  • Student of Socrates
  • Wrote Socrates’ dialogues
  • Apology: Socrates’ trial
  • Phaedo: Socrates’ last conversation
  • The Republic: Ideal city-state/ Three parts of soul: reason, moral courage, appetites
  • The Academy
  • Challenged Plato’s teachings
  • Tutor for Alexander of Macedonia
  • Ethics:Happiness is found in balance between two extremes: Golden Mean
  • Poetics: Formal pattern of Greek drama.
  • Lyceum
greek music
Greek Music
  • Music: of the “Muses” Goddesses who inspired creative arts.
  • Lyre
  • Aulos
  • Music could bring about feelings
  • Music lost forever
  • Pythagoras’ intervals: octaves
hellenistic age
Hellenistic Age
  • Philip of Macedon subdued Greek city-states. Succeeded by son Alexander
  • Alexander loved Greek civilization and spread it throughout his empire in Persia and Egypt
  • Hellenistic: Greek-like
hellenistic legacy
Hellenistic Legacy
  • Collected great classical manuscripts in libraries.
  • Artists imitated forms and ideas of the Greeks.
  • Playwrights copied Greek theater
  • Euclid: Planets revolve around the sun
  • Established Greek culture as the standard.