CHAPTER 20 The Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan Section 1: Physical Geography Section 2: The Arabian Peninsula Section 3: Iraq Section 4: Iran and Afghanistan
Section 1 Physical Geography Objectives: • What are the major physical features of the region? • What climates are found in this region? • What are the region’s important resources?
Section 1 Physical Geography Major physical features of the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan • The Arabian Peninsula—bordered by the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, and the Persian Gulf • The plain of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) lies between the exotic rivers. • Region of mountains and plateaus—Elburz Mountains, Kopet-Dag range, Hindu Kush, and the Zagros Mountains
Section 1 Physical Geography Climates of the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan • Most of the region has a desert climate. • There are parts of the region with steppe climates.
Section 1 Physical Geography Important resources of the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan • Water resources include wadis and fossil water. • Oil is the key mineral resource. • Iran has other metal deposits.
Section 2The Arabian Peninsula Objectives: • What are Saudi Arabia’s history, government, and people like? • What kinds of government and economy do the other countries of the Arabian Peninsula have?
Section 2The Arabian Peninsula Saudi Arabia • History—created in 1932 by the Saud family; closely linked to Islam • Government—a monarchy still ruled by the Saud family; most officials are members of the family; Islamic scholars influence policy • People—ethnic Arabs; 85 percent Sunni; Islam is reflected in dress, treatment of women, and daily prayer schedules
Section 2The Arabian Peninsula Other countries of the Arabian Peninsula Other countries of the Arabian Peninsula are predominantly Islamic and have varying wealth from oil reserves. All but Yemen are monarchies.
Section 2The Arabian Peninsula (continued)Other countries of the Arabian Peninsula • Kuwait—invaded by Iraq in 1990 Gulf War; rich in oil • Bahrain and Qatar—Bahrain is a historic trade center; Qatar becoming more democratic • The United Arab Emirates—led by emirs; foreign workers outnumber citizens • Oman—attempting to create new industries besides oil • Yemen—elected government suffers from corruption; poorest in the region
Section 3 Iraq Objectives: • What were the key events in Iraq’s history? • What are Iraq’s government and economy like? • What is the makeup of Iraq’s population?
Section 3 Iraq Key events in Iraq’s history include: • A.D. 600—Arabs conquer Mesopotamia, Islam spreads, Baghdad thrives (until 1258). • 1500s—Mesopotamia becomes part of the Ottoman Empire. • British take over during World War I; overthrown in the 1950s by the Iraqi army.
Section 3 Iraq (continued)Key events in Iraq’s history include: • Ba’ath Party takes over in 1968 and Saddam Hussein becomes president in late 1970s. • 1980—Iraq invades Iran; Iran-Iraq War is fought from 1980 to 1988. • 1990—Iraq invades Kuwait, triggering Persian Gulf War.
Section 3 Iraq Iraq’s government: • is controlled by the Ba’ath Party and Saddam Hussein. • has built a large army and secret police force. Iraq’s economy: • is limited by trade embargoes since the two wars. • also has mining, construction, and manufacturing industries.
Section 3 Iraq Iraq’s population is: • 75 percent Arab • nearly all Muslim • 15-20 percent Kurds
Section 4Iran and Afghanistan Objectives: • What were some important events in Iran’s history? • What are Iran’s government and people like? • What problems does Afghanistan face today?
Section 4Iran and Afghanistan Important events in Iran’s history include: • 500s B.C.—The Persian Empire was centered in the region. • 300s B.C.—Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire. • A.D. 600s—Arabs invade and establish Islam. • 1921—The Shah takes over and encourages reform; his son succeeds him in 1941.
Section 4Iran and Afghanistan Important events in Iran’s history include: (continued) • 1979—The Shah is overthrown and Iranian Republic is formed; American hostages are taken with approval from the government. • 1980–1988—Iran-Iraq War is fought.
Section 4Iran and Afghanistan The People and Government of Iran • Iran is a theocracy—it is ruled by religious leaders. • The government has supported terrorism and the destruction of Israel. • Possible democratic reforms have been developing since the late 1990s. • The population is diverse, with ethnic Persians in the majority. • The Shia branch of Islam is the official religion.
Section 4Iran and Afghanistan Problems in Afghanistan • Links to terrorism of September 11, 2001, placed Afghanistan at the center of the war on terror, led by the United States. • Afghanistan has an interim government after the ousting of the Taliban. • Years of war have hurt Afghanistan’s people, industry, trade, and transportation systems.