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Overview of Regulatory Changes, Policy and Implementation. Colleen Brisnehan Colorado Department of Public Health And Environment Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Division September 25, 2012. Draft Revisions to Asbestos-Contaminated Soil Regulation. Ongoing stakeholder process

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    1. Overview of Regulatory Changes, Policy and Implementation Colleen Brisnehan Colorado Department of Public Health And Environment Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Division September 25, 2012

    2. Draft Revisions to Asbestos-Contaminated Soil Regulation • Ongoing stakeholder process • Continue to revise and refine language • Clarify and refine requirements: • Definitions • Applicability • Exemptions • Provide relief where possible: • Disposal & Reuse • Management & Monitoring

    3. Key Definition Changes Old: Asbestos Contaminated Soil (ACS) • Soil containing any amount of asbestos. New: Regulated Asbestos Contaminated Soil (RACS) • Based on high potential to release asbestos fibers Non-Regulated Asbestos Contaminated Soil (Non-RACS) • Based on low potential to release asbestos fibers

    4. Applicability NEW Any person who disturbs debris must: • Determine if the debris is RACS: • Exempt from Section 5.5? • Material known to contain asbestos? • Determine asbestos content: • analysis of asbestos content, or • knowledge of asbestos content (e.g. previous analysis), or • assume RACS Disturbance of RACS • Must comply with Section 5.5, or • Must cease disturbance and cover disturbed RACS • Generated RACS not disposed or reused in accordance with Section 5.5 is subject to the requirements of the Act and Regulations (i.e., landfill requirements)

    5. Exemptions NEW Section 5.5 Does Not Apply to: • Disturbance of Non-RACS • Abatement of facility components under AQCC Regulation No. 8 • Spill response under AQCC Regulation No. 8 • “Background” not associated with site activities • Active Disposal Facilities with a CD • De Minimis Disturbance of RACS • Less than 1 cubic yard using low-emission methods • Projects by home owner on primary residence

    6. Management Options Site Specific Asbestos Management Plan • Propose/implement site/project specific procedures • Provides for more site specific considerations Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) • Implement pre-approved standard procedures • Amendments for project specific considerations Best Management Practices (BMP) • Implement pre-defined management procedures Risk Based Asbestos Management Plan • Propose/implement project specific risk-based emissions criteria NEW NEW

    7. Disposal & Reuse NEW Disposal: • RACS with > 1% friable ACM • Dispose as friable asbestos waste • RACS with < 1% friable ACM • Dispose as non-friable asbestos waste • Non-RACS • Dispose as C&D waste Reuse: • Reuse within area of contamination • Cover requirements, no covenant required • Reuse outside area of contamination • Beneficial reuse determination, may require covenant NEW NEW

    8. New Groundwater Standards Commission Passed August 13, 2012 Become effective January 31, 2013 Key Changes (ug/l): • Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) - 17 or 5M • cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene - 14 to 70M • Trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene - 140 or 100M • 1,1,1-Trichloroethane - 14,000 or 200M • 1,4-Dioxane - 0.35 (currently 3.2) • Perchlorate - 4.9

    9. Beneficial Groundwater Use The Issue: Naturally occurring inorganic constituents often exceed surface water standards • Can significantly impact dewatering project costs • Treatment required before discharge • or must dispose offsite Solution: Land apply for wetting or dust suppression • All constituents must meet groundwater standards • Must prevent run-off

    10. Beneficial Use of Solid Waste Section 8 of the Solid Waste Regulations • No adverse impact on groundwater • No surface water impact • Must meet unrestricted use concentrations • alternatively, requires use restriction under a covenant • Must meet established engineering specifications • Must be a demonstrated benefit associated with use • Must be used as a substitute for, or in conjunction with, a commercial product or raw material

    11. What is an Environmental Covenant C.R.S. §§ 25-15-317 to 327 • Legally enforceable mechanism controlling land use • Gives regulators authority to enforce land and water use restrictions in cleanup and closure decisions • Binding against current and subsequent land owners or any person using the land • Injunctive relief only; no penalties • Statute silent as to whether EC is property right vs. regulatory (policy power) device

    12. What is a Restrictive Notice • Alternative mechanism to EC; similar function • Created in 2007 amendment to EC law • Necessitated by federal agencies’ refusal to grant covenants • Explicitly based on state’s police power • May be issued unilaterally, but only against property owned by a party being required to remediate contamination

    13. Institutional Controls Required when a “remedial decision” is made: • On a remediation project • Residual contamination not safe for all uses • Engineered structures relied upon Required for final remedial decisions: • No further treatment or removal is planned • Waste is capped in place • Contamination remains above unrestricted use levels • Remedy relies on pump-and-treat or natural attenuation • Not required for VCUP remediation projects

    14. Institutional Controls (cont.) Not required for interim measures not intended as the final remedial decision: • In-situ treatment requiring limited applications • Number of required treatments not known in advance • Use of innovative or unproven technology • Removal of soil impacting groundwater Result of final remedial decision based on: • Conditions at completion of remedy construction • Time necessary for monitoring to demonstrate design goals have been met

    15. Timing of Institutional Controls Submit covenant or restrictive notice: • Based on schedule in remedial decision document • 30 days after completion of remedy construction • 30 days after remedial decision for IC only remedies Sites with multiple remediation projects: • Division and facility to determine best approach • Single site-wide covenant • One covenant per remediation project • Multiple covenant covering one or more projects • Division may exercise discretion regarding timing of covenant execution