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Official Power and Countervailing Power. Vocabulary. Legislative Power: the power to make laws. Ex: The King and his Sovereign Council, British Legislative Assembly, today’s Parliament

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Legislative Power: the power to make laws. Ex: The King and his Sovereign Council, British Legislative Assembly, today’s Parliament

Executive Power: the ability to enforce laws. Ex: The King and his Army, British Governor General, today’s Prime Minister

Judicial Power: The ability to interpret and judge laws. Ex: The King and his judges, British Governor General and his judges, today’s independent judges

french regime 1608 1760 power of the state
French Regime (1608-1760): Power of the State

Power in New France is held exclusively by the King

The Sovereign Council, made up of the governor general and intendant, represented the King in the New France. They had legislative, executive, judicial powers

To ensure its authority was respected, the State had three means of control: the army, exemplary punishments and demonstrations of power.

the state and its allies
The State and its Allies

17th and 18th centuries an alliance between the State and Aboriginal peoples served the interests and objectives of both parties.

The State granted many privileges to the Church, whose influence over the people and Aboriginal allies allowed for social order to be maintained.

the nobility peasants and artisans before the state
The nobility, peasants and artisans before the State

Nobles devoted themselves to the king with absolute loyalty in exchange for certain privileges (positions as officials, judges, etc.)

Although they made up more than 80% of the population, peasants and artisans had no political rights and had no influence over the government

the british governor and his adversaries in quebec from 1763 1791
The British Governor and his adversaries in Quebec from 1763-1791

The Province of Quebec was created by the Royal Proclamation in 1763. It was subject to the decisions of the mother country (GB) and was governed by a British governor, who aided by a council appointed by the King.

Colonist tried to influence the decisions of the authorities by creating newspapers, petitions and associations. The governor was only bound to serving the King, not the people.

The state relied on the support of three important social groups: Aboriginal peoples, the Canadien nobility and the Catholic Church

Many bourgeois Canadien joined British merchants asking for the creation of a Legislative Assembly

In 1791, the Constitutional Act created Upper and Lower Canada and gave each territory its own Legislative Assembly.

parliamentary government in lower canada from 1791 1840
Parliamentary Government in Lower Canada from 1791-1840
  • The general population had little influence on the Legislative Assembly for 3 reasons:
    • - the right to vote was denied to women and poor people
    • - the bourgeoisie served their own business interests, not the peoples
    • - the Governor and Executive and Legislative Councils could veto any bill
The PartiCanadiencalled for more power to be given to the Legislative Assembly

The PartiCanadienbecame the PartiPatriote(more radicalized with stonger demands) and was stronlgy opposed by the British Party, Catholic Church and Canadien nobles

When the PartiPatriotes demands in the 92 Resolutions were not met, rebellions broke out in Lower Canada in 1837-38. The rebellion was crushed and the leaders were either hanged or deported.

In response to the rebellions, Lord Durham’s report suggested merging Upper and Lower Canada into one United Canada, in an attempt to assimilate the Canadiensin to a British majority.