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Endocarditis & Endovascular Infections. Thomas Hawn, July 2010. Vegetation. Tricuspid valve. Medic.med.uth.tmc.edu. Case. 45 yo female S/P MVA ARDS in the ICU x 15 d with new onset fever. PE IJ central line along with 2 peripheral ivs. Question:

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Endocarditis & Endovascular Infections

Thomas Hawn, July 2010





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45 yo female S/P MVA

ARDS in the ICU x 15 d with new onset fever.


IJ central line along with 2 peripheral ivs.


How do you diagnose a CVC infection?

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Central Venous Catheter Infections

Criteria for positivity

Paired quantitative: catheter:vein cfu ratio >3

Unpaired quantitative: catheter cx >100 cfu/ml

Differential time: >120 minutes


Paired quantitative 79 94 Siegman-Igra, meta-analysis (cath:vein ratio>3-10:1)

Unpaired quantitative 78 96 Siegman-Igra, meta-analysis (CFU/ml>15-100)

Differential time to positivity 89 100 Gaur et al, n=33 (time>120 minutes)

96 100 Blot et al (1998), n=64, (time > 120 minutes)

94 91 Blot et al (1999), n=28, (time > 120 minutes)

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Central Venous Catheter Infections

Diagnostic Recommendations

If CVC infection is suspected,

1. Draw 2 sets of bld cxs (one percutaneously)

2. Check paired quantitative or qualitative with time to positivity monitoring

3. If catheter is removed, send tip for culture.

Criteria for positivity:

>15 CFU by semi-quantitative method (roll-plate)

>100 CFU by quantitative method (sonication)

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Central Venous Catheter Infections


Blood culture grow Staphylococcus aureus in 2 out of 2 sets (4 bottles).

Catheter 100 CFU/ml

Vein 15 CFU/ml


What is your management recommendation?

Should the line be removed?

Duration of Rx?

Should a TTE or TEE be obtained?

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Short Term CVC Management

Mermel et al CID 2009 IDSA Catheter Rx Recs

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Long Term CVC Management

Mermel et al CID 2009 IDSA Catheter Rx Recs

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Uncomplicated CVC Bacteremia

1) No septic emboli

2) Negative surveillance cultures 2-4 d after starting therapy

3) Removable focus of infection

4) Not immunocompromised

5) Rapid clinical resolutions of sxs within 72h of starting abx and removing focus of infection

6) No indwelling prosthetic devices or underlying heart disease

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Should the line be removed in S. aureus bacteremia?

S. aureus bacteremia, n=244

Management recommended: remove focus of infection, check surveillance cultures, TEE, start therapy (decide duration based on whether endocarditis present)

Cure rate:

Recommendations followed: 79.5%

Recommendations not followed: 64.4%

Foreign body removed: 83.7%

Foreign body not removed: 43.5%

Fowler et al (1998) CID 27: 478-86

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  • 50 yo F in ICU with fever

  • Bld Culture with Candida in 4/4 bottles

  • Questions

  • What anti-fungal treatment do you start?

  • When do you change Rx after species known?

  • When do you get MICs for fluconazole?

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IDSA Candida 2009 Guidelines

Pappas et al (2009) CID 48: 503-35

  • Candidemia in non-neutropenic host

  • Initial Rx:

  • Fluconazole 800 mg load, then 400 mg qday

  • OR Echinocandinqday (A-I)

  • Echinocandin preferred if higher illness severity or recent azole exposure (A-III)

  • Remove catheter (A-II)

  • Search for metastatic foci

  • Rx duration: 2 wks if uncomplicated (A-III)

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Reboliet al (2007) NEJM 356: 2472

Anidulafungin non-inferior to fluconazole,

But, … possibly more efficacious

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Micafungin versus Caspofungin for Treatment

of Candidemia and Other Forms of Invasive


Pappas et al (2007) CID 45: 883-93

Rx Success associated with Catheter Removal

RDBPCT, n=595 candidemic pts

Treatment Success

Catheter removed 77.9%

Catheter not removed 63.2%


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IDSA Candida 2009 Guidelines

Drug choice & need to check sensitivities

C. albicans: sensis not routine, based on risks

C. glabrata: echinocandin preferred (B-III) or check fluc sensi

C. krusei: no fluc

C. parapsilosis: fluc preferred (B-III)

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40 yo M with mitral valve prolapse.

Dentist plans to place orthodontic brackets.

50 yo F with a history of endocarditis will undergo cystoscopy

What do you recommend for IE prophylaxis?

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What is the highest risk of bacteremia exposure?

Cumulative exposure measures CFU per minute per ml per year of bacteria

Tooth extraction

Dental Exam

Mucoperiosteal surgery

Daily life


Brushing teeth


NT tube


(Relative to tooth extraction)









2007 guidelines: Emphasize that daily activities incur highest risk, rather than procedures.

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Lockhart et al Circulation 117: 3118 (2008)

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What are risk factors for IE?

IE incidence

#/100,000 person years

General population 4.9

Prior endocarditis

Rheumatic heart disease

Congenital heart disease:


VSD with medical Rx

VSD with surgical Rx

Aortic stenosis

Pulmonic stenosis

Prosthetic valve

MVP with murmur

MVP without murmer

Steckelberg & Wilson 1999











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2007 AHA Guidelines

  • Cardiac Conditions with recommended prophylaxis:

  • 1. Prosthetic cardiac valve

  • 2. Previous IE

  • 3. Congenital Heart Disease:

  • A. Unrepaired cyanotic CHD, including palliative shunts & conduits

  • B. Completely repaired CHD with prosthetic material or device, during the first 6 months after the procedure

  • C. Repaired CHD with residual defects at the site or adjacent to the site of a prosthetic patch or device

  • 4. Cardiac transplant recipients who develop cardiac valvulopathy

  • Compared to 1997: Simplified list with emphasis on risk of adverse outcome from IE rather than risk of acquisition.

  • (no longer recommended for MVP or RHD)

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2007 AHA Guidelines

Procedures for which endocarditis is recommended for the above categories of patients:

1. All dental procedures that involve manipulation of gingival tissue or the periapical region of teeth or perforation of the oral mucosa.

2. Respiratory tract or infected skin/soft tissue procedures

3. NOT recommended for GU or GI procedures solely to prevent IE

Compared to 1997:

Simplified list of which procedures qualify

(no GU/GI, criteria for dental procedure straightforward)

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HPI: 14 yo M

2 m h/o of fever, HA, myalgias.

RLQ pain led to appendectomy

w/ necrotizing lymphadenitis.

Left calf pain resolved with Abx.

After Abx, fever returned

Then, R wrist swollen & tender

R thigh pain developed.

PE: T 39.3, P 108, BP 128/35

II/VI systolic murmur

splinter hemorrhages in 3 nails

petechial rash on legs


Bld Cx 6/6 bottles Viridans strep

45 yo M h/o ESLD, HCV, EtOH

Fever x 3d.

Also with SOB and abdominal pain.

PE: Tm 38.5



?splinter hemorrhages 2 nails


Bld Cx: 1/6 bottles with Viridans strep

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  • What is your DDx?

  • How many modified Duke criteria does this patient have?

  • How useful are the modified Duke criteria?

  • What work-up is needed?

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DDx of Endocarditis

A. associated with neoplasms: atrial myxoma, marantic (adenoCa), carcinoid

B. associated with autoimmune: rheumatic heart disease, SLE (Libman-Sacks endocarditis), anti-phospholipid syndrome, polyarteritis nodosa, Behcet’s disease

C. Postvalvular operation: thrombus, sutures

D. Other: eosinophilic heart disease, ruptured mitral chordae, myxomatous degeneration

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Modified Duke Clinical Criteria

  • Definite IE

  • Pathological criteria:

    • Microorganisms: demonstrated by culture or histology in a vegetation, in a vegetation that has embolized, or in an intracardiac abscess, or

    • Pathologic lesions: vegetation or intracardiac abscess present, confirmed by histology showing active endocarditis.

  • Clinical criteria

  • 2 major criteria, or

  • 1 major and 3 minor criteria

  • 5 minor criteria

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Modified Duke Clinical Criteria

Possible IE

1 major and 1 minor

3 minor


Firm alternate diagnosis for manifestations of endocarditis

Resolution of manifestations of endocarditis with antibiotic therapy for ≤ 4 days, or

No pathological evidence of IE at surgery or autopsy, after antibiotic therapy for ≤ 4 days.

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Major Criteria

1. Positive blood culture for IE

A. Typical microorganism consistent with IE from 2 separate blood cultures as noted below:

viridans streptococci, Streptococcus bovis, HACEK group, Staphylococcus aureus, or community-acquired enterococci,

in the absence of a primary focus

B. Microorganisms consistent with IE from persistently positive blood cultures as defined as

(i) ≥2 positive cultures of blood samples drawn >12 hours apart

(ii) all of 3 or a majority of ≥4 separate cultures of blood

(with the first and last samples drawn ≥1 hour apart)

iii. Coxiella: + Bld cx or anti-phase I Ab titer>1:800

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Bacteremia & IE Likelihood

PathogenIE:non IE Ratio

S. mutans

S. bovis

S. sanguis

S. mitior

E. faecalis

S. anginosus

Grp G Streptococcus

Grp B Streptococcus

Grp A Streptococcus

14.2 : 1

5.9 : 1

3.0 : 1

1.8 : 1

1.0 : 1.2

1.0 : 2.6

1.0 : 2.9

1.0 : 7.4

1.0 : 32.0

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Major Criteria

2. Evidence of endocardial involvement

A. Positive echocardiogram for IE defined as

(i) oscillating intracardiac mass on valve or supporting structures, in the path of regurgitant jets, or on implanted material in the absence of an alternative anatomic explanation, or

(ii) abscess, or

(iii) new partial dehiscence of prosthetic valve, or

B. New valvular regurgitation (worsening or changing or pre-existing murmur not sufficient)

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Minor Criteria

1. Predisposition: predisposing heart condition or intravenous drug use

2. Fever: temperature ≥ 38.0 C

3. Vascular phenomena: major arterial emboli, septic pulmonary infarcts, mycotic aneurysm, intracranial hemorrhage, conjunctival hemorrhage, and Janeway lesions

4. Immunologic phenomena: glomerulonephritis, Osler’s nodes, Roth spots, and rheumatoid factor

5. Microbiological evidence: positive blood culture but does not meet a major criteria as noted above or serologic evidence of active infection with organism consistent with IE (excludes single positive cultures for coagulase-negative Staphylococci and organisms that do not cause endocarditis).

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Clinical Manifestations

Osler’s nodes

Splinter hemorrhages

Janeway’s lesions



Mylonakis, NEJM, 2001

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Clinical Manifestations

Septic pulmonary emboli


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Clinical Manifestations: Complications

Mycotic aneurysm


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Duval et al Ann Int Med 152: 497 (2010)

High rate of lesions in neurologically asymptomatic cases

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Assessment of Duke Criteria

  • Sensitivity: 80% for definite IE

  • 100% for definite + possible IE

  • Negative predictive value >98% for rejected category

  • Adopted modifications from Li et al (2000)

    • a. S. aureus bacteremia should be a major criteria regardless of the source (community or nosocomial)

    • b. Eliminate the ECHO minor criteria since TEE’s are more widely used now

    • c. Add Coxiella to list of major criteria (a single positive blood culture or antiphase I IgG antibody titer > 1:800).

    • d. To increase specificity, change the category “possible IE” to cases with 1 major and 1 minor criteria or 3 minor criteria.

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  • When do you recommend a TEE?

  • Should all pts with CVC-associated S. aureus bacteremia get a TEE?

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Role of Transesophageal ECHO in diagnosing IE

1. Prosthetic valves

2. Suspected complication

(such as perivalvular abscess)

3. Those in “Possible Endocarditis” category

4. ? Negative TTE & S. aureus bacteremia

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Should all patients with S. aureus bacteremia have a TEE?

Arguing in favor:

1) Increased sensitivity leads to more diagnoses & better Rx

TTE sensitivity=32%

TEE sensitivity=100%

2) ? Cost effective (save costs of lengthy treatment)

Arguing against:

3) TEE more labour intensive

4) Small vegetations may be adequately treated with short course treatment.

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Case: Rx ?s

3. 65 yo female with 4 weeks of fever, myalgias, nausea and decreased appetitie.

ECHO: MV vegetation with severe MR.

4. 30 year old male with h/o IVDU and dental caries with fever for 1 day after recent injection.

ECHO: AV vegetation with severe AI.


What empiric treatment do you recommend before the results of blood cultures are known?

What antibiotics do you recommend for viridans strep?

Who can be treated for 2 wks?

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Empiric Antibiotic Selection

Empiric Therapy for IE

Main goal is to treat acute IE, most often caused by S. aureus

Acute IE:

Vancomycin +/- gentamicin

Subacute IE:

more difficult and less important to Rx empirically.

Vancomycin + ceftriaxone covers many of the important organisms.

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AHA: Rx of Viridans Strep IE

Viridans streptococci & S. bovis,

PCN susceptible (MIC ≤0.12 mg/ml)

i. PCN G 12-18 mU iv/day x 4 wks,

ii. ceftriaxone 2g iv or im qd x 4 wks,

iii. PCN G 12-18 mU iv qd + x 2 wks,

gentamicin 1 mg/kg iv q8h

iv. vancomycin 1g iv bid x 4 wks (for b-lactam allergic pts)

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AHA: Rx of Viridans Strep IE

  • Viridans streptococci & S. bovis,

  • relatively resistant to PCN (MIC > 0.12 mg/ml & < 0.5 mg/ml)

  • i. PCN G 24 mU iv/day x 4 wks

  • + gentamicin 3 mg/kg iv qd x 2 wks

  • Ceftriaxone 2g iv qd x 4 wks

  • + gentamicin 3 mg/kg iv qd x 2 wks

  • iii. vancomycin 1g iv bid x 4 wks (for b-lactam allergic pts)

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AHA: Rx of Enterococcus, Abiotrophia, & Grunulicatella IE

i. PCN G 18-30 mU iv/day x 4-6 wks

+ gentamicin 1 mg/kg iv q8h x 4-6 wks

ii. ampicillin 12 g/day iv x 4-6 wks

+ gentamicin 1 mg/kg iv q8h x 4-6 wks

iii. vancomycin 1g iv bid x 6 wks

+ gentamicin 1 mg/kg iv q8h x 6 wks

(for b-lactam allergic pts)

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i. ceftriaxone 2g iv/im qd x 4 wks

(or other 3rd or 4th gen. cephalosporin)

ii. Ampicillin-sulbactam 12g iv/day x 4 wks

iii. Ciprofloxacin 500 mg po bid or 400 mg iv bid x 4 wks

(less experience with quinolones & HACEK)

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30 yo M with h/o IDU with fever

Diagnosed with MV IE 2° MRSA

Started on vancomycin/gentamicin

Daily cultures positive x 8 d


Should a vancomycin MIC be obtained?

Should vancomycin troughs be obtained?

Should a different drug be used?

Does this patient need cardiac surgery?

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Randomized trial

Inclusion: positive SA blood cx

Randomize to: daptomcyin (n=124)

vs. standard therapy ( b-lactam or vancomycin/gentamicin 1 mg/kg x 4d)


Overall success ITT: daptomycin 42.7%

standard Rx: 39.3%

Conclusion: Daptomycin is non-inferior to standard Rx

Median duration of bacteremia:

Dapto Std Rx P

MRSA 8d 9d 0.28

MSSA 4d 3d 0.25

Fowler et al NEJM 2006

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Vancomycin Dose & MICs

Do high troughs help?

Hidayat et al Arch Int Med 2008

Are high MICs associated with poor outcomes?

Soriano et al CID 2008

Prospective observational study

Inclusion: MRSA bacteremia, n=414

If vancomycin MIC = 2

OR for mortality: 6.39 (1.68-24.3)

Prospective cohort study

Inclusion: MRSA sputum, blood, wound

Measure vancomycin MIC

Compare high (≥2) vs low (<2) MIC

Compare achievement of trough goal target of 15 ucg/ml

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16 yo male with a 1 week history of fever to 103 F.

Developed confusion, blurrred vision and abdominal pain. Head CT showed hypodense lesions bilaterally in the parietal lobe, abdominal CT showed a 2 cm splenic infarct, and an ophthalmologic exam showed bilateral emboli.

4 out of 4 cultures grew MRSA. ECHO showed mild MR and a vegetation on the anterior leaflet.

Does this patient need cardiac surgery?

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Indications for Cardiac Surgery

Valvular dysfunction

-Acute aortic or mitral insufficiency with signs of ventricular failure

-Heart failure unresponsive to medical therapy

-Valve perforation or rupture

Perivalvular extension

-Valvular dehiscence, rupture, or fistula

-New heart block

-Large abscess, or extension of abscess despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

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Indications for Cardiac Surgery

  • Vegetation

  • Persistent vegetation after systemic embolization:

  • -Anterior mitral leaflet vegetation, particularly >1 cm

    • -One or more embolic events during the 1st 2 wks of therapy

  • -2 or more embolic events during or after antimicrobial therapy

  • Increase in vegetation size after 4 weeks of antimicrobial therapy

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    Complications from IE

    1. Embolization: Difficult to predict who will embolize

     emboli with: AV & MV anterior leaflet,

    S. aureus, Candida, HACEK, & Abiotrophia organisms,

    ? Size > 1 cm

    2. CHF: Poor prognosis with medical Rx alone

    Delaying surgery until decompensation will  mortality

    3. Extracranial Mycotic Aneurysms

    Surgical intervention advised

    4. Intracranial Mycotic Aneurysms

    Debates @ merits of screening & surgery.

    Very little data to guide decision.

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    CC: fever and rash

    HPI: 45 year old male from St. Paul Island in Alaska

    R thumb stung by the barb of a yellow-fin Irish Lord fish.

    Pain, swelling, and erythema of the thumb x 2d, spread to R arm.

    Prescribed TMP-SMX for cellulitis.

    Erythema progressed

    After 1 week, annular, flat, erythematous macules developed on all extremities.

    Pt developed fever, chills, sweats, nausea, vomiting, and myalgias over the next month.

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    Culture Negative Endocarditis

    Exposure Common pathogens Diagnostic methods

    Birds C. psittaci Complement fixation, ELISA

    EtOHism, Bartonella quintana “Fastidious” organism bld cx,

    homeless subCx to chocolate agar

    Animals Coxiella burnetti CFA titers to phase I & II Ags

    Brucella species “Fastidious” organism bld cx Serology

    Nosocomial, Fungi Extended incubation of blood immuosuppression cultures

    STD, Neisseria gonorrhea Bld cx. Commercial systems sexually active may inhibit Neisseria.

    Epidemic Legionella Special culture for fastidious pneumophilia organisms, consider urinary antigen for Legionella

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    Culture Negative Endocarditis

    Houpikian & Raoult Medicine 84: 162-173 (2005)

    n=348 subjects, France 1983-2001

    blood culture negative IE

    Pathogen N (%)

    C. burnetti 167 (48)

    Bartonella 99 (28)

    Rare fastidious 5 (1)

    Tropheryma whipplei

    Abiotrophia elegans

    Mycoplasma hominis

    Legionella pneumophila

    No etiology: on abx 58 (16.7)

    not on abx 15 (4.3)

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    Baddour et al Infective Endocarditis: Treatment, Diagnosis, & Management. Circulation 111: e394-433 (2005).

    Mermel et al Guidelines for the Management of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections. CID 49: 1-45 (2009).

    Pappas et al Guidelines for the management of Candidiasis CID 48: 503-35 (2009).

    Wilson et al Prevention of Infective Endocarditis. Circulation 115: (2007).