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KINS 151 Website. Introduction. How do objects move? How do humans move?. Definitions. Force (Force = mass x acceleration) Types of Force External forces : weight force or gravitational force (w = mg) and others

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kins 151 website

KINS 151 Website

  • How do objects move?
  • How do humans move?
  • Force (Force = mass x acceleration)
  • Types of Force
    • External forces: weight force or gravitational force (w = mg) and others
    • Internal forces: muscle force/contraction (concentric, eccentric, isometric or static)
planes of motion axis of rotation
Planes of Motion / Axis of Rotation
  • frontal plane and anteroposterior (sagittal) axis
  • sagittal plane and mediolateral (frontal, lateral, coronal ) axis
  • transverse plane and longitudinal (vertical) axis
Basic Movements
  • Primary movements in the sagittal plane are flexion and extension.
  • Flexion: bending movement
    • relative angle between adjacent segments decreases
  • Extension: straightening movement
    • relative angle between adjacent segments increases and the joint returns to the anatomical position
    • joint could be “flexed” while it is extending
At the ankle, there are special names for flexion and extension
  • Dorsiflexion: movement of the foot upward (toward the leg), decreasing the ankle angle
  • Plantar flexion: movement of the foot downward (away from the leg), increasing the ankle angle
Hyperflexion (joint position) occurs when the flexion movement goes beyond 180° of flexion or more than half a circle
    • Occurs at the shoulder joint as the arm rotates above the side of the head
  • Hyperextension (joint position): extension movement that goes beyond the anatomical position
    • can take place in the trunk, shoulders, hips, and wrist joints
Major frontal plane movements are abduction and adduction
  • Abduction: movement away from the midline of the body or segment
  • Adduction: movement back towards the midline of the body or segment
Other frontal plane movements include lateral flexion, elevation and depression, upward and downward rotation:
    • Sideways movements of the head and trunk, designated as right and left (from the perspective of the subject) lateral flexion
    • Scapular elevation and depression: scapulae raised and lowered in a shrugging motion
    • Scapular upward and downward rotation, inferior angle moves away from midline (upward) inferior angle moves towards the midline
Rotations of the hands and feet in the frontal plane include:
    • Radial deviation: movement of the hand toward the thumb
    • Ulnar deviation: movement of the hand toward the little finger
    • Inversion: medial border of the foot lifts
    • Eversion: lateral aspect of the foot lifts
These terms should not be confused with pronation and supination, which are combinations of movements at the ankle (subtalar) joint
    • Pronation is a combination of eversion, abduction, and dorsiflexion
    • Supination is a combination of inversion, adduction, and plantar flexion
Body movements in the transverse plane are rotational movements about a longitudinal axis
    • Left and right rotation could occur in the trunk or head segment
    • Other segment rotations can be internal or external rotations
Specific terms are used for rotations of the forearm
    • Supination: palms rotate outward to face forward as in the anatomical starting position
    • Pronation: palms are moved to face backwards
When the shoulder or hip is flexed to a 90° position, movement in the transverse plane from an anterior to a lateral position is horizontal abduction
    • Horizontal adduction: movement in the transverse plane from a lateral to an anterior position
movement analysis
Movement Analysis
  • Most (if not all) activities can be analyzed by breaking them down into three general phases:

1) preparation ↔ deceleration ↔ eccentric

2) acceleration ↔ acceleration ↔ concentric

3) follow-through ↔ deceleration ↔ eccentric

  • The more complex an activity is the more phases it tends to have.

ex. baseball pitch, walking