KINS 151 Website

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# KINS 151 Website - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

KINS 151 Website. www.hhs.csus.edu/HomePages/KHS/imamura/KINS151. Introduction. How do objects move? How do humans move?. Definitions. Force (Force = mass x acceleration) Types of Force External forces : weight force or gravitational force (w = mg) and others

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### KINS 151 Website

www.hhs.csus.edu/HomePages/KHS/imamura/KINS151

Introduction
• How do objects move?
• How do humans move?
Definitions
• Force (Force = mass x acceleration)
• Types of Force
• External forces: weight force or gravitational force (w = mg) and others
• Internal forces: muscle force/contraction (concentric, eccentric, isometric or static)

### Anatomical Reference Position

Planes of Motion / Axis of Rotation
• frontal plane and anteroposterior (sagittal) axis
• sagittal plane and mediolateral (frontal, lateral, coronal ) axis
• transverse plane and longitudinal (vertical) axis
Basic Movements
• Primary movements in the sagittal plane are flexion and extension.
• Flexion: bending movement
• relative angle between adjacent segments decreases
• Extension: straightening movement
• relative angle between adjacent segments increases and the joint returns to the anatomical position
• joint could be “flexed” while it is extending
• Dorsiflexion: movement of the foot upward (toward the leg), decreasing the ankle angle
• Plantar flexion: movement of the foot downward (away from the leg), increasing the ankle angle
Hyperflexion (joint position) occurs when the flexion movement goes beyond 180° of flexion or more than half a circle
• Occurs at the shoulder joint as the arm rotates above the side of the head
• Hyperextension (joint position): extension movement that goes beyond the anatomical position
• can take place in the trunk, shoulders, hips, and wrist joints
Major frontal plane movements are abduction and adduction
• Abduction: movement away from the midline of the body or segment
• Adduction: movement back towards the midline of the body or segment
Other frontal plane movements include lateral flexion, elevation and depression, upward and downward rotation:
• Sideways movements of the head and trunk, designated as right and left (from the perspective of the subject) lateral flexion
• Scapular elevation and depression: scapulae raised and lowered in a shrugging motion
• Scapular upward and downward rotation, inferior angle moves away from midline (upward) inferior angle moves towards the midline
• Radial deviation: movement of the hand toward the thumb
• Ulnar deviation: movement of the hand toward the little finger
• Inversion: medial border of the foot lifts
• Eversion: lateral aspect of the foot lifts
These terms should not be confused with pronation and supination, which are combinations of movements at the ankle (subtalar) joint
• Pronation is a combination of eversion, abduction, and dorsiflexion
• Supination is a combination of inversion, adduction, and plantar flexion
Body movements in the transverse plane are rotational movements about a longitudinal axis
• Left and right rotation could occur in the trunk or head segment
• Other segment rotations can be internal or external rotations
Specific terms are used for rotations of the forearm
• Supination: palms rotate outward to face forward as in the anatomical starting position
• Pronation: palms are moved to face backwards
When the shoulder or hip is flexed to a 90° position, movement in the transverse plane from an anterior to a lateral position is horizontal abduction
• Horizontal adduction: movement in the transverse plane from a lateral to an anterior position
Movement Analysis
• Most (if not all) activities can be analyzed by breaking them down into three general phases:

1) preparation ↔ deceleration ↔ eccentric

2) acceleration ↔ acceleration ↔ concentric

3) follow-through ↔ deceleration ↔ eccentric

• The more complex an activity is the more phases it tends to have.

ex. baseball pitch, walking