Before Reading_ MAIN A prominent scientist, a well-known Soviet philosopher and psychologist. About the Author One of the authors of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Alexander Spirkin A corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Dialectical Materialism Read and Think Alexander Spirkin Director of the Department of General Problems of Dialectical Materialism at the Academy Institute of Philosophy. Environmental Issues Group Discussion Used to be the first director of a secret laboratory of clairvoyants in the USSR. Prof. Spirkin’s recollections of his experience of working in the secret laboratory:
Before Reading_1.1 I still know nothing about the results of those scientific works with remote viewers even so many years after. Soviet military officials were interested in our work, too. They listened to my lectures with great interest. On many occasions I was taken to secret military headquarters, the whereabouts of which I didn’t know either — they were taking me there in cars with curtains on the windows. In the end I had to leave the laboratory. New technologies and devices started to appear but I could hardly understand anything about them. A special committee came to check our equipment, and they were shocked to see how outdated it was. The laboratory was not closed. A younger scientist took my place in the lab, but I know nothing about its current activities. About the Author Alexander Spirkin Dialectical Materialism Read and Think Environmental Issues Group Discussion
Before Reading_1.2 Directions: One of the most famous books written by Alexander Spirkin is Dialectical Materialism，where the text comes from. Listen to a brief introduction to the book and try to catch the missing words or phrases for the blanks in the passage. About the Author Alexander Spirkin Dialectical Materialism Read and Think Dialectical Materialism, written by Professor Alexander Spirkin, was published in 1983 by This book is a Leninist philosophy, its central and problems, its historical role and in the complex world of today. It is an attempt to expound the and ideas of this philosophy in a compressed form. Its philosophy and art, man and his in the world, the of human reason, man and culture and many other problems that are not usually on Marxist-Leninist philosophy. Environmental Issues Progress Publishers ________________ , Moscow. consideration ___________ of the essence of Marxist- Group Discussion propositions __________ significance __________ _____________ basic principles range _____ encompasses ________ existence ____________ creative power examined ________ in similar courses
Before Reading_2 Directions: Read the following poster. Can you understand what the poster means? What information can you learn from it? How do you feel after reading the poster? About the Author Alexander Spirkin Dialectical Materialism The world’s water supply If all earth’s water fit in a gallon jug, available fresh water would equal just over a tablespoon — less than half of one percent of the total. About 97 percent of the planet’s water is seawater; another two percent is locked in icecaps and glaciers. Vast reserves of fresh water underlie earth’s surface, but much of it is too deep to economically tap. Read and Think Environmental Issues Group Discussion
Before Reading_3.1 1. What environmental issues do you think are the most pressing now? 2. Can you recognize what environmental issues do the following pictures show? What do you know about them? Share your knowledge with your classmates. About the Author Alexander Spirkin Dialectical Materialism Read and Think Environmental Issues Group Discussion
( ) Deforestation ( ) Global Warming Before Reading_3.2 About the Author Alexander Spirkin Dialectical Materialism Read and Think Environmental Issues ( ) Group Discussion ( ) Air Pollution Ozone Depletion
Before Reading_4 Directions: We human beings live on the earth and always keep developing our civilization. Where do you think human civilization is heading? How can we live in harmony with nature? Discuss with your group members and share your experiences with them. About the Author Alexander Spirkin Dialectical Materialism Read and Think Environmental Issues Group Discussion
Global Reading_1.1 Parts Paras. Main Ideas Part Division of the Text Man lives in the realm of nature. He is connected with nature by “blood ties” and he cannot live outside nature. 1~2 1 Further Understanding Blank Filling As society develops, man tends to become less dependent on nature directly, while indirectly his dependence grows because the industrial transformation of the earth makes it increasingly difficult to obtain irreplaceable natural resources for the needs of production. 3~4 2 True or False Questions and Answers Interview At present, Mother Nature is being exhausted in resources, contaminated by synthetic products, and troubled by ecological imbalance. The previous dynamic balance between man and nature and between nature and society as a whole, has shown ominous signs of breaking down. 5~7 3
Global Reading_1.1 Parts Paras. Main Ideas Part Division of the Text The solution to man–nature lies in rational and wise organization of both production itself and care for Mother Nature by all humanity. And the failure to live in harmony with nature and obey its laws would cause fatal disaster. 8~9 Further Understanding 4 Blank Filling True or False Questions and Answers Interview
Global Reading_2.1 Part Division of the Text i______ nteract We humans live inside and with the nature. The air, water and food make us constantly of the influence of nature. But we it too. We convert its wealth into ours. is an example to serve our interest. We also plants and animals to different climatic conditions, and by changing the climate, we even plants and animals. a_____ ware Further Understanding ransform t_______ Blank Filling t______ ransfer lectricity E_______ True or False t________ ransform Questions and Answers Interview
Global Reading_2.21 1. 2. 3. With the development of our society, human beings become more and more independent. The imperfect tools prevented our ancestors from satisfying their needs. People in ancient times tended to see the nature’s elemental forces as friendly. Part Division of the Text ( ) F Further Understanding As society develops, man tends to become less dependent on nature directly, while indirectly his dependence grows. Blank Filling True or False ( ) F Questions and Answers Despite their imperfect tools, they worked together stubbornly, collectively, and were able to attain results. Interview ( ) F Nature with its elemental forces was regarded as something hostile to man.
Global Reading_2.22 4. 5. Deforestation originally was due to human’ s fear of forest. As time goes on, mankind begins to look for other resources to take the place of natural resources. Part Division of the Text ( ) T Further Understanding Blank Filling ( ) F True or False As time goes on, mankind becomes increasingly concerned with the question of where and how to obtain irreplaceable natural resources for the needs of production. Questions and Answers Interview
1. What signs are given in this part to show that the previous dynamic balance is breaking down? Global Reading_3.1 Part Division of the Text The problem of replaceable resources of the biosphere has become acute. It is getting more difficult to satisfy the needs of human beings and society even for such a substance as fresh water. The problem of eliminating industrial waste is also becoming increasingly complex. Further Understanding Blank Filling True or False Questions and Answers 2. What is the feature of modern technology? An ever-increasing abundance of produced and used synthetic goods. Interview 3. Why do young people like synthetic, glittering fabrics that are not good for them? Because they pay more attention to appearance than to health and they will only become aware of this harmful influence as they grow older.
4. In what way are the synthetic products harmful to the earth? Global Reading_3.2 Part Division of the Text When synthetic products turn into waste, substances that in their original form were not very toxic are transformed into harmful substances in the cycle of natural processes. Further Understanding Blank Filling True or False Questions and Answers Interview
Global Reading_4 Directions: Work in pairs to perform an interview. One student plays as the writer, Alexander Spirkin, and the other, a journalist. You two are talking about the man–nature relation. Your conversation should be based on part 4, and it should cover the following aspects: Part Division of the Text Further Understanding Blank Filling True or False 1. How does the writer view the man–nature relation? 2. What is the solution to ecological crisis? 3. If human beings go on violating the laws of nature, what will happen? 4. What Oriental wisdom can we use for reference to deal with the man–nature relation? Questions and Answers Interview
Detailed Reading_t0 Nature nurtures mankind unselfishly with its rich resources. Yet, man is so carried away in his transformation of nature that he is unaware that it also has limitations and needs constant care. Now worn by the excessive demands of mankind, nature is unable to maintain the ecological balance needed. Humanity is faced with the problem of how to stop, or at least to moderate, the destruction of Mother Nature. Detailed Reading
Man in the Realm of Nature Alexander Spirkin Detailed Reading_t1 Human beings live in the realm of nature. They are constantly surrounded by it and interact with it. Man is constantly aware of the influence of nature in the form of the air he breathes, the water he drinks, and the food he eats. We are connected with nature by “blood ties” and we cannot live outside nature. Detailed Reading Man is not only a dweller in nature, he also transforms it. Humanity converts nature’s wealth into the means of the cultural, historical life of society. Man has subdued and disciplined electricity and compelled it to serve the interests of society. Not only has man transferred various species of plants and animals to different climatic conditions, he has also changed the shape and climate of his environment and transformed plants and animals.
As society develops, man tends to become less dependent on nature directly, while indirectly his dependence grows. Our distant ancestors lived in fear of nature’s destructive forces. Very often they were unable to obtain the merest daily necessities. However, despite their imperfect tools, they worked together Detailed Reading_t2 Detailed Reading stubbornly, collectively, and were able to attain results. Nature was also changed through interaction with man. Forests were destroyed and the area of farmland increased. Nature with its elemental forces was regarded as something hostile to man. The forest, for example, was something wild and frightening and people tried to force it to retreat. This was all done in the name of civilization, which meant the places where man had made his home, where the earth was cultivated, where the forest had been cut down.
But as time goes on mankind becomes increasingly concerned with the question of where and how to obtain irreplaceable natural resources for the needs of production. Science and man’s practical transforming activities have made humanity aware of the enormous geological role played by the industrial transformation of the earth. Detailed Reading_t3 Detailed Reading At present the previous dynamic balance between man and nature and between nature and society as a whole, has shown ominous signs of breaking down. The problem of the so-called replaceable resources of the biosphere has become particularly acute. It is getting more and more difficult to satisfy the needs of human beings and society even for such a substance, for example, as fresh water. The problem of eliminating industrial waste is also becoming increasingly complex.
Detailed Reading_t4 Modern technology is distinguished by an ever-increasing abundance of produced and used synthetic goods. Hundreds of thousands of synthetic materials are being made. People increasingly cover their bodies from head to foot in nylon and other synthetic, glittering fabrics that are obviously not Detailed Reading good for them. Young people may hardly feel this , and they pay more attention to appearance than to health. But they become more aware of this harmful influence as they grow older. As time goes on, the synthetic output of production turns into waste, and then substances that in their original form were not very toxic are transformed in the cycle of natural processes into aggressive agents. Today both natural scientists and philosophers are asking themselves the question: Is man’s destruction of the biosphere inevitable?
The man-nature relation — the crisis of the ecological situation — is a global problem. Its solution lies in rational and wise organization of both production itself and care for Mother Nature, not just by individuals, enterprises or countries, but by all humanity. One of the ways to deal with the crisis situation in the “man-nature” system is to use such resources as Detailed Reading_ t5 Detailed Reading solar energy, the power of winds, the riches of the seas and oceans and other, as yet unknown natural forces of the universe. But to return to our theme, the bitter truth is that those human actions which violate the laws of nature, the harmony of the biosphere, threaten to bring disaster and this disaster may turn out to be universal. How apt then are the words of ancient Oriental wisdom: live closer to nature, my friends, and its eternal laws will protect you!
Detailed Reading_t1_We… We are connected with nature by “blood ties” and we cannot live outside nature. Detailed Reading 1. What does “blood ties” refer to? It refers to such very close relationship as kinship. 2. Translate this sentence. 我们与大自然血肉相连，离开大自然，我们将无法生存。
Detailed Reading_t1_Humanity… Humanity converts nature’s wealth into the means of the cultural, historical life of society. Detailed Reading Translate this sentence into Chinese. 人类把自然资源转变为各种文化和社会历史的财富。
Not only has man transferred various species of plants and animals to different climatic conditions, he has also changed the shape and climate of his environment and transformed plants and animals. Detailed Reading_t1_Not… Detailed Reading Analyze the structure of this sentence. This is a compound sentence led by “not only… (but) also”. The first half led by “not only” is the inverted structure. More examples: Not only is Tom very clever, he is also very diligent. Not only did he lose his bag, but he himself got lost. Not only does he write the lyrics to the songs, but he also composes the music. Paraphrase this sentence. Man has shifted different kinds of plants and animals to areas with different climates from those of their original habitats. Moreover, man has transformed the shape and climate of his own environment and accordingly the plants and animals have also adapted themselves to the changes.
Detailed Reading_t2_Nature… Nature with its elemental forces was regarded as something hostile to man. Detailed Reading What can we learn from this sentence? We can learn that the power of nature is out of man’s control so that it is believed to be unfavorable to humanity. 2. Translate this sentence into Chinese. 大自然及其威力被看成是和人类敌对的东西。
Detailed Reading_t2_This… This was all done in the name of civilization, which meant the places where man had made his home, where the earth was cultivated, where the forest had been cut down. Detailed Reading 1. Analyze the structure of this sentence. The attributive clause led by “which” includes another three attributive clauses led by “where” in parallel structure. 2. Translate this sentence into Chinese. 这一切都是打着“文明”的旗号进行的。所谓“文明”，就是人类在哪里建立家园、耕耘土地，哪里的森林就被砍伐。
Detailed Reading_t3_Science Science and man’s practical transforming activities have made humanity aware of the enormous geological role played by the industrial transformation of the earth. Detailed Reading Paraphrase this sentence. Man has realized the great geological changes caused by the industrial influence on the earth, which is made by science and man’s transforming activities in practice.
Detailed Reading_t3_At present… At present, the previous dynamic balance between man and nature and between nature and society as a whole, has shown ominous signs of breaking down. Detailed Reading 1. What can we learn from this sentence? We can learn from the sentence that man has threatened the balance between man and nature and between nature and society, which used to be maintained dynamically, but now tends to collapse. 2. Translate this sentence into Chinese. 目前，人与自然以及自然与社会整体之间过去存在的动态平衡，已显现出崩溃的迹象。
Detailed Reading_t4_Modern… Modern technology is distinguished by an ever-increasing abundance of produced and used synthetic goods. Detailed Reading 1. What can we infer from this sentence? We can infer from this sentence that it is modern technology, to a great extent, that enables the production and consumption of large quantities of synthetic goods. 2. Translate this sentence into Chinese. 现代技术的特征是生产和使用日益丰富的人工合成产品。
Detailed Reading_t5_Its solution… Its solution lies in rational and wise organization of both production itself and care for Mother Nature, not just by individuals, enterprises or countries, but by all humanity. Detailed Reading Translate this sentence into Chinese. 这一问题的解决之道在于理性而明智地协调生产和对大自然的关爱之间的关系，这不仅要依靠个人、企业或者国家的力量，而且要依靠全人类的力量。
Detailed Reading_t5_But to… But to return to our theme, the bitter truth is that those human actions which violate the laws of nature, the harmony of the biosphere, threaten to bring disaster may turn out to be universal. Detailed Reading 1. Paraphrase this sentence. As we come to the topic under discussion, it is painful to see the fact that human activities may well bring disaster through the violation of the laws of nature and the harmony of the biosphere. 2. Translate this sentence into Chinese. 但是，回到我们原先的主题上，令人难以接受的事实是那些违背了自然规律、破坏了生物圈和谐的人类行为将会带来灾难，而这一事实可能是普遍存在的。
realm: n. a country ruled over by a king or queen; a general area of knowledge, activity, or thought Detailed Reading_t1_realm Detailed Reading The king had to call representatives of different classes of the realm into consultation upon the national economic crisis. 影片将孩子们带入了幻想的王国。 The movie has brought children to a realm of imagination. Collocations: public realm 公众领域 within the realms of possibility 有可能的 He always projects an image of success in public realm. 他总是以成功人士的形象出现在公众面前。 It was actually within the realms of possibility. 这是完全有可能的。
interact: vi. if people or things interact with each other, they affect each other Detailed Reading_t1_interact Detailed Reading Lucy interacts well with other children in the class. 所有事物都是互相联系又互相作用的。 All things are interrelated and interact with each other.
Detailed Reading_t1_transform1 transform: vt. Detailed Reading to completely change the appearance, form, or character of something or someone, especially in a way that improves it Increased population has transformed the landscape. 这部戏几乎在一夜之间把她从一个不为人知的校园女生变成了演艺巨星。 The play transformed her almost overnight from an unknown schoolgirl into a megastar.
CF: change, convert & transform change convert transform Detailed Reading_t1_transform2 这些动词均有“变化，改变”之意。 指任何变化，完全改变，强调与原先的情况有明显的不同。 指进行全部或局部改变以适应新的功能或用途。指信仰或态 度时，强调较激烈、大的改变。 指人或物在形状、外观、形式、性质等方面发生的彻底变 化，失去原状成为全新的东西。 Detailed Reading Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. ________ transform 1. In order to their environment, he drew up the project. 2. Carbon dioxide can be into oxygen through the agency of plant. 3. Why do the leaves on trees colour in autumn? 4. He always attempts to others to a particular doctrine or belief. ________ converted ______ change ______ convert
Detailed Reading_t1_convert convert: v. Detailed Reading to change something into a different form of thing, or to change something so that it can be used for a different purpose or in a different way They converted the spare bedroom into an office. In the process, the light energy converts to heat energy. 他成功地让我接受了他的观点。 He succeeded in converting me to his point of view.
Detailed Reading_t1_subdue subdue: vt. gain control of, esp. by defeating Detailed Reading For a century we laboured to settle and to subdue the continent. 警方设法制服了愤怒的人群。 Police managed to subdue the angry crowd. NB: 该词的过去分词subdued可作形容词，意为“柔和的，减弱的，无精打采的”。例如： In the bar, there is subdued light and soft music. Richard seems very subdued tonight.
Detailed Reading_t1_discipline1 discipline: 1. vt. train or develop, esp. in obedience and self-control Detailed Reading Disciplining children takes patience and consistency. 不同文化中对于孩子的训导方式是不一样的。 Different cultures have different ways of disciplining their children. 2. n. 1) a way of training someone so that they learn to control their behaviour and obey rules The book gives parents advice on discipline.
Detailed Reading_t1_discipline2 2) an area of knowledge or teaching Detailed Reading The information that has evolved in one discipline may permit exciting advancement in another. 她对营销这门学科的实践知识和强烈的求知欲给我留下了深刻的印象。 I was greatly impressed by her practical knowledge of the discipline of marketing and her strong desire to learn more. Collocations: discipline problem纪律问题 discipline oneself自律 instill discipline into sb.灌输纪律观念
CF: compel, force & oblige compel Detailed Reading_t1_compel1 compel: vt. make (a person or thing) do sth., by force, moral persuasion, or orders that must be obeyed Detailed Reading Our minds are so constructed that they compel us to view the external world in only one way. 法律要求雇主必须提供健康保险。 The law compels employers to provide health insurance. 这些动词均含“迫使”之意。 指在法律、权力、力量或行动等的驱使下被迫而为。例如: A parent may compel his child to do his lessons by threatening to suspend his allowance. 家长可能会采用威胁暂停津贴的办法迫使其子女学习。
force oblige Detailed Reading_t1_compel2 指用个人意志、权力、权威或暴力等，迫使他人改变看法 或做本不愿做的事。例如: 指由于生理或道德上的需要，促使某人做某事，也指有权 威的人或机构迫使某人做某事，还可指在特定情况下被迫 作出的反应。例如: Detailed Reading Government troops have forced the rebels to surrender. 政府军已经迫使叛乱者投降。 Circumstances had obliged him to sell the business. 形势逼迫他卖掉公司。
Detailed Reading_t1_transfer transfer: 1. v. move from one place, job, position, etc., to another Detailed Reading Michael transferred from Company 6 to the Security Service. 2. n. Most of the bills are paid by electronic transfer. 权力的移交迅速而又和平地得以实现。 The transfer of power was effected swiftly and peacefully.
in fear of: in a state of fear about Detailed Reading_t2_in fear of Detailed Reading Ordinary people lived in fear of being arrested by the secret police. 他们生活在不断的饥饿恐惧中。 They live in continual fear of starvation.
attain: vt. to succeed in achieving something after trying for a long time Detailed Reading_t2_attain Detailed Reading More women are attaining positions of power in public life. 他们最后一定能获得解放。 They’re sure to attain emancipation in the end.
Detailed Reading_t2_hostile hostile: a. Detailed Reading showing extreme dislike or disapproval; unfriendly Senator Lydon was hostile to our proposals. 工程进展得很慢，因为不少学者对普通人持敌对态度。 The project proceeded slowly because many scholars were hostile to the common people.
CF: retire, retreat & withdraw retire Detailed Reading_t2_retreat1 retreat: vi. Detailed Reading move back or leave a center of fighting or other activity, esp. when forced to do so Perry lit the fuse and retreated to a safe distance. 从公众生活中隐退是不明智的。 It was not a sensible choice to retreat from public life. 这些动词均含“退下，退却”之意。 指从公开或公共场合退下到私下场所，也指被免除职务或自 动辞职、退役等。例如: I retired from teaching three years ago. 三年前我就不再教书了。
retreat withdraw Detailed Reading_t2_retreat2 Detailed Reading 含消极意味，多指被迫采取退下或退却的行动。 强调因某种原因而有意离开，常含礼貌、谦恭等理由。也 指军队的撤退。 The enemy was forced to retreat. 敌军被迫撤退了。 As the troops withdraw , the entire city celebrated the liberation. 部队撤退时,整个城市欢庆解放。
Detailed Reading_t3_concerned concerned: a. affected by something or worried about it; believing something is important Detailed Reading All the people present are concerned with children’s education. 很多政客更关注的是权力和控制而不是人民的利益。 Many politicians are more concerned with power and control than with the good of the people. Collocations: concerned with 关注，关心；与……相关 concerned about/for 担心，关爱 concerned to do sth. 专注于做某事 as far as … is concerned就……而言
Detailed Reading_t3_ominous ominous: a. making you feel that something bad is going to happen Detailed Reading The car is making an ominous rattling sound. 不祥的黑云预示着雷暴的到来。 The ominous black clouds predicted the coming thunderstorm.
Detailed Reading_t3_acute acute: a. severe; very great Detailed Reading The housing shortage is more acute than first thought. 一颗蛀牙可以引起强烈的疼痛。 A bad tooth can cause acute pain. Collocations: acute disease急性病 acute anxiety急剧焦虑 acute shortage严重短缺 acute sense敏锐的感觉 acute mind机智的头脑