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US-Japan Workshop on Power Plant Studies and Related Advanced Technologies with EU Participation. Fusion energy introduction: Impacts on grid and hydrogen production. Satoshi Konishi and Yasushi Yamamoto, Institute for Advanced Energy, Kyoto University Jan.25, 2006. Contents

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slide1

US-Japan Workshop on Power Plant Studies and Related

Advanced Technologies with EU Participation

Fusion energy introduction: Impacts on grid and hydrogen production

Satoshi Konishi and Yasushi Yamamoto,

Institute for Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Jan.25, 2006

Contents

1.Introduction of fusion electricity and its impact

on grids

2.Hydrogen production by fusion update

Photo by K. Okano

slide2

Introduction

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

In order to maximize the market chance of fusion,

we study

0. Socio-economic aspects of fusion

1. Improvement in adoptability to electricity grid

2. Development of hydrogen production process

3. High temperature blanket with SiC-LiPb system.

1 study on the impacts on grids
1. Study on the impacts on grids

Startup power

Grid capacity and sources

Future trends

energy flows in fusion reactor

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Energy flows in fusion reactor

Grid

  • Q=50, Pi=60MW → auxiliary power ratio = ~13%

Pc=Pi+Pa

Pth=Pc+MPn

3372MW

Pa =Pf /5

Pnet=(1-e)Pe

Pn

1250MW

Generator

he

Blanket

M

Plasma

Q

Pe=hePth

Pf +Pi

1.13

0.4

MPn

1450MW

3060MW

Driving System

hd

Pd

Pcir=ePee

Pi = hd Pd

120MW

200MW

60MW

0.5

Auxiliary System

hanc

Paux

~5% 80MW

  • Fusion needs power to start and continue to run.
auxiliary power in power plants

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Auxiliary power in power plants

Coal Oil Nuclear Fusion

Current drive / Auxiliary heating

Coal crusher

Tritium handing

Coal feeder

Oil feeding pump

Magnet cooling

Exhaust gas treatment system

Recirculation pump

Condensate water pump

Cooling water pump

Control system

Others

auxiliary power ratio of various system

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Auxiliary power ratio of various system

Source: 内山洋司;発電システムのライフサイクル分析,研究報告,(財)電力中央研究所(1995)

electric grids

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Electric Grids
  • Electricity can not be stored.
  • Generation must respond to the demand.
  • Grid capacity is different for each regions
    • United States
    • Japan
    • Europe
    • Asia
  • Grid capacity changes time-to-time.
  • Response time of the grid is limited.
electric grid capacities

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Electric grid capacities

UTPTE

~270GW

Eastern Grid

~500GW

East Japan

~80GW

Vietnam

~8GW

Western Grid

~140GW

West Japan

~100GW

Texas Grid

~53GW

Thailand

~20GW

Physics Today, vol.55, No.4 (2002)

electric grid in japan structure

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Electric Grid in Japan –Structure –

Comb structure due to geographical reason

Hokkaido

5,345MW

579MW

Utility Name

Max. demand (~2003)

Largest Unit (Nuclear)

DC connection

600MW

Tohoku

14,489MW

825MW

Hokuriku

5,508MW

540MW

West Japan Grid

60Hz, ~100GW

600MW

Kyushu

17,061MW

1,180MW

Kansai

33,060MW

1,180MW

Chubu

27,500MW

1,380MW

Tokyo

64,300MW

1,356MW

Chugoku

12,002MW

820MW

Shikoku

5,925MW

890MW

300MW

East Japan Grid

50Hz, ~80GW

electric grid in japan

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Demand (GW)

Hour

Electric Grid in Japan
  • Grid capacity is almost a half of maximum at early morning.
  • Requirements different in each country.
slide11

Demands in the southasian countries

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

* Source JBIC report 18

  • Vietnam
  • Thailand

Peak Power (MW)

Peak Power (MW)

  • Cambodia
  • Laos

Peak Power (MW)

Peak Power (MW)

fusion startup power

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Fusion startup power

Power demand in ITER standard operation scenario

Active power

P = ~300MW

dP/dt = ~230MW/s

Reactive power

Q > 600MVA

by on-site compensation

Qgrid = ~ 400MVA

power generation control

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Demand curve

Sustained Element

Demand

Fringe element

Cyclic element

Time

Spectrum of Demand change

Power generation control

> ~10min

ELD or manual

3min< t < 10min

AFC

< ~3min

governor

of each UNIT

(spinning reserve)

< ~0.1min

Self-regulating

In Japan, usual value of spinning reserve is ~3% of total generation

slide14

Calculation model

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

  • Calculation model

Thermal Generator

10km

100km Transmission Line

Hydroelectric Generator

Demand

10km

Fusion Reactor

Reference Capacity : 1000MVA

Transmission Voltage : 115kV

System capacity : 7-15GWe

Impedance per 100km : 0.0023+j0.0534[p.u.]

Capacitance : jY/2 = j0.1076[p.u.]

slide15

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Frequency deviation by Fusion reactor startup

200MW/s

12GWe Grid

56GWe Grid

Demand of active power

Frequency deviation

slide16

Effects of load variation time

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Grid Capacity: 8.3GWe

Load variation pattern

Frequency deviation

  • Deviation becomes small with decrease of load variation rate
  • There exists large difference between 23MW/s and 77MW/s
  • At 5MW/s, generators response to the load increase.
slide17

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Influence to the power grid

  • Maximum Frequency Fluctuation [Hz] for 7GW grid
  • Maximum Frequency Fluctuation [Hz] for 15GW grid
slide18

Effects of maximum load value

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Grid Capacity: 8.3GWe

Maximum load : 230MW

Maximum load : 330MW

・When maximum load exceeds some value, large frequency deviation is observed.

  (Setting of spinning reserve configuration largely affects )

・If variation rate is small, 330MW demand which is almost same as spinning reserve capacity, does not cause large frequency deviation.

slide19

Effects of grid configuration

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

  • The grid capacity of 10-20GW is required to supply startup power of ITER like fusion reactor. In the small grid, more than the usual value (3% of total capacity) of spinning reserve is required
  • The influence also depends on the grid configuration, as response time of each power unit is different.
difference in grid composition

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

0.00

-0.02

-0.04

-0.06

Kansai, Night

-0.08

frequency(Hz)

Kansai, daytime

-0.10

Thai

-0.12

-0.14

-0.16

0

10

20

30

time(sec)

Difference in Grid Composition

35

Grid Capacity

30

Nuclear

25

Hydro

Kansai, night  : 14GWe

Kansai, daytime  : 30GWe

Thai   : 15GWe

20

Fossil fire

output(GW)

15

10

5

Change of the Load

200MW, 200MW/sec

0

Kansai,night

Thai

Kansai,day

Composition of grid

・Large and fast load affects grid.

Small capacity cannot respond.

・Grid in Thailand is smaller than

Kansai, but has more capacity to

accept fusion load.

Frequency change

slide22

Conclusion and suggestions

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Starting fusion plant can be a major impact on some small grids.

- fusion must minimize startup demand.

Response and reserve of the grid are different.

- grids in developing countries could be suitable for fusion introduction.

Fusion must study the characteristics of future

customers.

study “best mix” for each country.

slide23

Hydrogen market

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

25

Electricity

Solid Fuel

20

Liquid Fuel

Gaseous Fuel

15

Energy demand(GTOE)

10

5

0

2000

2020

2040

2060

2080

Year

Market 3 times larger than electricity

Automobile

・Carbon-free fuels required

- Exhausting fossil resources

- Global warming and CO2 emission

・Future fuel use

  - Fuel cells for automobile

  - aircrafts

・Dispersed electricity system

  - Cogeneration

  - Fuel cell,

  - micro gas turbine

(could be other synthetic fuels)

Aircraft

2100

Substitute fewer than electricity source

Example of Outlook of Global Energy Consumption by IPCC92a

slide24

Fusion can produce Hydrogen

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Proposed reaction : (C6H10O5 )+H2O+814kJ = 6CO+6H2

6CO+6H2O = 6H2+6CO2

18.6Mt/y waste←60Mt/inJapan

Feeds 1.1M FCV /day or

17M FCV/year*

◯Processing capacity

・4240t/h waste 280t of H2

◯endothermic reaction converts both biomass and fusion into fuel.

 ・2.5GWt 5.1GWe equivalent with FC(@70%)

H2 280 t/h

Heat exchange,

Shift reaction

CO2 3.1E+06 kg/h

2120 t/h

biomass

CO 2.0E+06 kg/h

Fusion

Reactor

2.5GWth

H2 1.4E+05 kg/h

H2O

Chemical

Reactor

cooler

Steam

(640 t/h)

He

(*assuming 6kg/day

or 460g/year, MITI,Japan)

Turbine

1.16E+07 kg/h

600℃

slide25

Energy Eficiency

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

◯amount of produced hydrogen from unit heat

  ・low temperature(300℃)generation

→ conventional electrolysis

  ・high temperature(900℃)generation

   → vapor electrolysis

  ・high temperature(900℃) → thermochemical production

Hydrogen

production

electricity

Energy

consumption

From 3GW heat

efficiency

3

3

%

1

G

W

2

8

6

kJ/

m

o

l

2

5

t

/

h

300C-electrolysis

5

0

%

1

.

5

G

W

2

3

1

kJ/

m

o

l

4

4t

/h

900C-SPE electrolysis

5

0

%

1

.

5

G

W

1

8

1

kJ/

m

o

l

5

6t

/h

900C-vapor electrolysis

6

0

kJ/

m

o

l

3

4

0t

/

h

900C-biomass

slide26

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

3.0

50%

Gas flow rate 85ml/s

Cellulose0.15g

2.5

H2

Vapor concentration 4%

2.0

Gas production [×10-3mol]

1.5

Conversion ratio

CO

1.0

0.5

CO2

CH4

0

700

800

900

1000

1100

Temperature [℃]

Conversion of Cellulose by Heat

n(C6H10O5) + mH2O H2 + CO + HCs

Current result is 37% conversion efficiency, w/o catalyst.

slide27

Heat Balance

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Absorbed heat was measured with endothermic reaction.

Estimated heat efficiency was ca. 50%. (not limited

by Carnot efficiency)

Measure heat transfer was

19 kw/m2.

slide28

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Hydrogen Production by Fusion

    • Fusion can provide both high temperature heat and electricity
    • - Applicable for most of hydrogen production processes
  • There may be competitors…
  • As Electricity
  • -water electrolysis, SPE electrolysis: renewables, LWR
  • -Vapor electrolysis : HTGR
  • As heat
  • -Steam reforming:HTGR(800C),
  • -membrane reactor:FBR(600C)
  • -IS process :HTGR(950C)
  • -biomass decomposition: HTGR
slide29

Reactor Design

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Product (CO+H2) gas

Waste Feed(×4)

He (high temperature)

He

Char

High temperature steam

Reference reactor design

Heat transfer pipes : 20mm diameter

Heat exchange surface : 12.5m2/m3 Per unit volume.

Height : 20m (reaction section : 10m)

Diameter : 10m

Heat flux : 19kw/m2

Total heat consumption : 170MW

Processing rate :80t/hr (at 100% conversion)

of cellulose (dry weight): 210t/hr (at 40% conversion)

H2 production rate : 11 t/hr(at 100% efficiency)

4 t/hr(at 30% efficiency)

With fusion reactor generating 2.5GW heat,

25 of above reactor can be operated.

slide30

Energy Source Options

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

For hydrogen production, some energy sources provide limited options.

renewablesLWR fusion(HTGR) FBR

Conv.electrolysis ○     ○      ○       ○

Vapor electrolysis ××      ○ ×

IS process ××      ○ ×

Steam reforming ××      ○       ?

Biomass hydrogen ××      ○       ?

Renewables (PV, wind, hydro) cannot provide heat.

LWR temperature not suitable for chemical process.

Fusion (with high temperature blanket) has stronger advantage

in hydrogen production applications.

slide31

Advantage of fusion over other energy

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

○Possible high temperature

 ・impossible for PV, wind or LWRs.

 ・higher than FBR.

 ・Equivalent to HTGR.

○Site and location, deployment in developing country

 ・less limitation of nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear proliferation.

 ・while nuclear policies differ by the governments, fusion

is internationally pursued.

 ・possible location near industrial area.

 ・independent from natural circumstance.

slide32

Use of Fusion Heat

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Blanket and generation technology combination

requires more consideration.

Blanket option temperature technology efficiency challenge

WCPB 300 ℃Rankine 33% proven

HCPB/HCLL ~500℃Rankine ~40% proven

Supercritical 500 ℃SCW >40% available

DCLL~700℃ SC-CO2 ~50% GEN-IV

LL-SiC900℃ SC-CO2 50% IHX?

900℃ Brayton ~60% GEN-IV

900℃ H2 ?? ??

Development of SiC-based intermediate heat exchanger started.

slide33

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

150

mill/kWh

145

resource

125

125

109

100

renewable

92

price

75

65

Possible Introduction price

50

technology

year

25

0

2050

2060

2070

2080

2090

2100

year

When fusion will be used?

Possible introduction price of Fusion :

increases with time as fossil price increases.

Current target of the development

Fusion is introduced into the market at this crossover probably with fossil.

slide34

Investment and contribution factor

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

6.2%

For R&D

・various sponsors provide funding

・fusion must look for sponsors from future market.

is it electricity?

sales

Fission reactor case

1960

industry

Basic

research

transfer

Research

institute

utility

Further competitiveness

Research

institutes

improvements

commercialization

slide35

basic

commercial

Research

contribution

R&D/

total sales

Basic

research

applied

research

development

Industry

5.4%

14.7%

26.0%

59.3%

40.7%

Chemical

2.4%

8.1%

23.5%

68.4%

31.6%

ceramics

1.9%

6.3%

15.7%

78.0%

22.0%

steel

1.4%

4.0%

11.0%

85.0%

15.0%

Metal

4.0%

5.4%

23.0%

71.6%

28.4%

machinery

5.9%

5.8%

27.4%

66.7%

33.2%

electrical

Electronic/

5.7%

2.7%

13.6%

83.8%

16.3%

instruments

6.8%

4.0%

22.6%

73.5%

26.6%

Fine machinery

8.4%

0.7%

4.3%

95.1%

5.0%

softwares

R&D budget to total sales

slide36

Conclusion

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

Socio-economic study suggests more advantages and

Technical challenges for fusion.

For electricity generation, characteristics of fusion should

be improved in terms of grid operation.

Hydrogen production has advantage, but needs significant development.

-market study

-components and processes

-material, tritium contamination

High temperature blanket and energy application may be

key issues.

what will happen in reactor design studies

Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University

What will happen in Reactor Design Studies

International activities toward DEMO

- Updated plasma data from physics

- Concepts on timetable (within 25 years?)

- “Broader Approach” activity

Needs to respond to Socio-Economic requirements

- safety

- electricity cost and quality

- hydrogen production

Correlated technology developments

- high temperature blankets

- power conversion

- high temperature divertor

- tritium compatible power train