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Careers in Psychology. Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Brief History of I/O Psychology.

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careers in psychology

Careers in Psychology

Industrial/Organizational Psychology

brief history of i o psychology
Brief History of I/O Psychology

1. Hugo Munsterberg – “Father” of Industrial PsychologyIn 1911, cautioned managers to be concerned with “all the questions of the mind … “First to encourage government funded research in industrial psych.

In 1913, published Psychology and Industrial Efficiency

assumptions of munsterberg s approach
Assumptions of Munsterberg’s Approach
  • Persons need to fit organizations
  • Behavioral science can help organizations shape better-fitting employees
  • New employees can serve as “replacement parts” for the organizational machine

Frederick W. Taylor – First “Efficiency Expert”Argued for redesign of workplace to achieve

higher productivity Conducted first time and motion studies of

worker behavior

In 1911, published The Principles of Scientific


assumptions of taylor s approach
Assumptions of Taylor’s Approach
  • Work methods should be designed scientifically to maximize efficiency
  • The best workers should be selected,then trained in the best work methodsShowed iron workers more productive if given rest periods: *Productivity increased almost 4-fold *Production cost dropped by more than 50%
complaints against taylor and other efficiency experts
Complaints Against Taylor(and other Efficiency Experts)
  • Inhumane exploitation of workers to increase profits
  • Increased unemployment because fewer workers needed to do same amount of work

First World War Ends Complaints!


Robert Yerkes – “Father” of group testing In 1917, proposed ways of screening army

recruits for mental deficiency and assigning

to specific army jobs

Created Army Alpha and Army Beta pencil-

and-paper intelligence tests

other significant events
Other Significant Events
  • 1917 – Journal of Applied Psychology first published
  • 1921 – James McKeen Cattell founds The Psychological Corporation to promote usefulness of psychology to industry
  • 1924 – Hawthorne Studies conducted to identify factors increasing productivity
  • 1933 – Elton Mayo demonstrates importance of employee attitudes and employer sensitivity
other significant events1
Other Significant Events
  • 1932 – Morris Viteles publishes Industrial Psychology, first use of that phrase in print
  • 1939 – Kurt Lewin publishes first empirical study of effects of leadership style
  • 1941-1945 – I/O psychologists help army develop General Classification Test for drafteesOSS (precursor to CIA) develops stress and other assessment tests for candidates to be agents
other significant events2
Other Significant Events
  • 1945 – Kurt Lewin forms Research Center for Group Dynamics at MIT (later moved to U. of Michigan)
  • 1946 – I/O psychologists form Division 14 of APA
  • 1950’s – Skinner initiates discussion of behaviorism applied to the workplace
  • 1960’s – David McClelland (and others) propose various theories of achievement motivation
other significant events3
Other Significant Events
  • 1970’s – Skinner (in Beyond Freedom and Dignity) advocates b. mod. strategies to motivate persons in organizations

Porter and Lawler propose expectancy model of motivation in the workplace

  • 1980’s to present – Explosion of I/O research and application
i o psychology defined
I/O Psychology Defined

“The general practice specialty of professional psychology with a focus on scientifically based solutions to human problems in work and other organizationalsettings.”

educational requirements
Educational Requirements
  • Core undergraduate education in1. Biological bases of behavior2. Cognitive-affective bases of behavior3. Social bases of behavior4. Individual differences5. Research methods6. Psychological/behavioral measurement7. Statistical methods
educational requirements1
Educational Requirements
  • Advanced (graduate) education in1. Ethical/legal issues in the practice of I/O psychology2. Consulting and business skills3. Attitude theory4. Career development5. Consumer behavior6. Health/stress effects on individuals in organizations7. Human factors and performance (a la Taylor)8. Individual/group/organizational assessment methods9. Job/task analysis10. Job evaluation11. Work motivation and compensation12. Leadership and management theory13. Organizational theory14. Training theory and program design/evaluation
what i o psychologists do
What I/O Psychologists Do
  • Job/task analyses
  • Development/validation of organizational policies/procedures
  • Analyses of employee morale, job satisfaction, and organizational environment
  • Leadership and team development
  • Management consultation and coaching
  • Human resource planning and policy analyses
  • Expert testimony in employer/employee disputes, such as sexual harassment cases