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Careers in Psychology. Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Brief History of I/O Psychology.

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careers in psychology

Careers in Psychology

Industrial/Organizational Psychology

brief history of i o psychology
Brief History of I/O Psychology

1. Hugo Munsterberg – “Father” of Industrial PsychologyIn 1911, cautioned managers to be concerned with “all the questions of the mind … “First to encourage government funded research in industrial psych.

In 1913, published Psychology and Industrial Efficiency

assumptions of munsterberg s approach
Assumptions of Munsterberg’s Approach
  • Persons need to fit organizations
  • Behavioral science can help organizations shape better-fitting employees
  • New employees can serve as “replacement parts” for the organizational machine
slide4

Frederick W. Taylor – First “Efficiency Expert”Argued for redesign of workplace to achieve

higher productivity Conducted first time and motion studies of

worker behavior

In 1911, published The Principles of Scientific

Management

assumptions of taylor s approach
Assumptions of Taylor’s Approach
  • Work methods should be designed scientifically to maximize efficiency
  • The best workers should be selected,then trained in the best work methodsShowed iron workers more productive if given rest periods: *Productivity increased almost 4-fold *Production cost dropped by more than 50%
complaints against taylor and other efficiency experts
Complaints Against Taylor(and other Efficiency Experts)
  • Inhumane exploitation of workers to increase profits
  • Increased unemployment because fewer workers needed to do same amount of work

First World War Ends Complaints!

slide7

Robert Yerkes – “Father” of group testing In 1917, proposed ways of screening army

recruits for mental deficiency and assigning

to specific army jobs

Created Army Alpha and Army Beta pencil-

and-paper intelligence tests

other significant events
Other Significant Events
  • 1917 – Journal of Applied Psychology first published
  • 1921 – James McKeen Cattell founds The Psychological Corporation to promote usefulness of psychology to industry
  • 1924 – Hawthorne Studies conducted to identify factors increasing productivity
  • 1933 – Elton Mayo demonstrates importance of employee attitudes and employer sensitivity
other significant events1
Other Significant Events
  • 1932 – Morris Viteles publishes Industrial Psychology, first use of that phrase in print
  • 1939 – Kurt Lewin publishes first empirical study of effects of leadership style
  • 1941-1945 – I/O psychologists help army develop General Classification Test for drafteesOSS (precursor to CIA) develops stress and other assessment tests for candidates to be agents
other significant events2
Other Significant Events
  • 1945 – Kurt Lewin forms Research Center for Group Dynamics at MIT (later moved to U. of Michigan)
  • 1946 – I/O psychologists form Division 14 of APA
  • 1950’s – Skinner initiates discussion of behaviorism applied to the workplace
  • 1960’s – David McClelland (and others) propose various theories of achievement motivation
other significant events3
Other Significant Events
  • 1970’s – Skinner (in Beyond Freedom and Dignity) advocates b. mod. strategies to motivate persons in organizations

Porter and Lawler propose expectancy model of motivation in the workplace

  • 1980’s to present – Explosion of I/O research and application
i o psychology defined
I/O Psychology Defined

“The general practice specialty of professional psychology with a focus on scientifically based solutions to human problems in work and other organizationalsettings.”

educational requirements
Educational Requirements
  • Core undergraduate education in1. Biological bases of behavior2. Cognitive-affective bases of behavior3. Social bases of behavior4. Individual differences5. Research methods6. Psychological/behavioral measurement7. Statistical methods
educational requirements1
Educational Requirements
  • Advanced (graduate) education in1. Ethical/legal issues in the practice of I/O psychology2. Consulting and business skills3. Attitude theory4. Career development5. Consumer behavior6. Health/stress effects on individuals in organizations7. Human factors and performance (a la Taylor)8. Individual/group/organizational assessment methods9. Job/task analysis10. Job evaluation11. Work motivation and compensation12. Leadership and management theory13. Organizational theory14. Training theory and program design/evaluation
what i o psychologists do
What I/O Psychologists Do
  • Job/task analyses
  • Development/validation of organizational policies/procedures
  • Analyses of employee morale, job satisfaction, and organizational environment
  • Leadership and team development
  • Management consultation and coaching
  • Human resource planning and policy analyses
  • Expert testimony in employer/employee disputes, such as sexual harassment cases