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LHC Status, Highlights and Future plans . ERICE June 25 th 2012 Philippe BLoch Cern. Luminosity of LHC. N = number of protons per bunch. Given by injector chain currently up to 1.6 10 11 protons e n = normalized emittance . Given also by injector chain currently about 2 m m

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Status, Highlights and Future plans

ERICE June 25th 2012

Philippe BLoch


luminosity of lhc
Luminosity of LHC
  • N = number of protons per bunch. Given by injector chain
  • currently up to 1.6 1011 protons
  • en = normalized emittance. Given also by injector chain
  • currently about 2 mm
  • kb = number of bunches. Depends on bunch spacing
  • currently 50ns -> kb = 1331
  • b* = beta function at collision point ; limited by triplet aperture
  • currently b* = 0.6 m
  • f = revolution frequency = 11245 Hz. Can not be changed
  • = E/m given by beam energy
  • F = correction factor <1, depends on crossing angle and beam separation (if different from 0)


pp situation in 2011
pp: situation in 2011

50 ns

75 ns

Increase Number of Bunches

Intermediate energy run, technical stop, scrubbing

MD, technical stop


MD, technical stop

MD, technical stop




b* = 1m

operational performance
Operational performance
  • Operational robustness
    • Precycle, injection, 450 GeV, ramp & squeeze & collisions routine
  • Machine protection
    • superb performance of machine protection and associated systems
    • Rigorous machine protection follow-up, qualification and monitoring
    • Routine collimation of 110 MJ LHC beams without a single quench from stored beams.

100 MJ enough to melt 150 Kg of Copper

Must be dumped in a single turn 88 ms

Paul Collier – LHC: Status, Prospects and Plans{lans

what we learnt in 2011
What we learnt in 2011
  • The LHC injectors can provide a significantly higher brightness beam than foreseen ( for 50ns bunch spacing)
  • The LHC can handle very high bunch intensities
    • head-on beam beam not a significant problem (yet)
  • The control of the machine parameters and the quality of the alignment means that the available aperture in the triplets is higher than expected
    • can be used for larger crossing angle, or lower b*
    • Partially exploited already during 2011 to go from 1.5m down to 1m
electron cloud
Electron cloud
  • Threshold effect leads to build up of electrons inside the vacuum chamber: Heat load (in cold sections), Vacuum pressure rise and beam becomes instable
  • The main solution is to condition the surface by electron bombardment – “scrubbing”. Very effective – but takes significant amounts of dedicated beam time
  • 50ns bunch spacing did not require too much fight against electron cloud
    • Electron cloud more of a problem for 25ns beams in LHC (and SPS)
    • “Memory” is kept after scrubbing
  • Tests showed that the situation with 25 ns is much more difficult.
2012 bunch spacing 50ns vs 25ns
2012 Bunch Spacing – 50ns vs25ns
  • 50ns
  • Operationally in good shape
  • 25ns
  • Not yet used operationally
  • Can fit 1380 bunches into the LHC
  • Can fit 2748 bunches into the LHC
  • Injectors can provide very high intensity per bunch at low emittance: 1.6x10+11, e=2.0mm
  • Injectors cannot provide as high brightness bunches: 1.2x10+11, e = 3.0mm
  • Problems with electron cloud instabilities are much less apparent
    • No need for a significant period of dedicated “scrubbing”
  • Emittance growth and lifetime problems due to e-cloud effects are very strong
    • A week of dedicated “scrubbing” needed.
  • Smaller Emittance means larger aperture – can run with b* = 0.6m
  • Larger emittance means that the b* is limited to 0.9m

Chosen 50 ns

for 2012

peak luminosity evolution so far
Peak Luminosity Evolution (so far)

Should never have Stopped!

Impressive Ramp-up!

Back in business – but it is not all plain sailing!

MD, Technical Stop

The injectors are important!

production running up to 19 th june
Production Running : up to 19th June

Assumes 0.84 fb-1/week

Last week before MD:

1.3 fb-1/week


Performance for physics objects largely recovered

using tracks techniques such as assignment to vertices and subtraction techniques

the present physics landscape
The present Physics Landscape
  • A personal and very biased choice of some recent physics highlights
  • (Very often the same or complementary information has been obtained in several experiments)
  • Much more in dedicated lectures
  • P.Jenni : ATLAS
  • J.Virdee : CMS
  • P. Giubellino ALICE
1 understanding the proton as a whole
1: Understanding the proton as a whole

TOTEM & ALPHA Experiments

Specific runs with high b (90m, 500m in the future) to measure elastic cross section

2 testing every corner of the standard model
2: Testing every corner of the Standard Model

Precision tests of the SM may allow finding deviations linked to higher order processes involving New Physics

Examples: Cross Sections

Precise (re)measurement of EW parameters

Helicity properties

CP violation in Bs

Rare decays


rare decays b s mm
Rare decays : Bs->mm

Bsm+m- candidate

Bsm+m-strongly suppressed in SMPredicted BR = (3.2 ± 0.2)  10-9* very sensitive to new physics

World-best limit set:BR < 4.5 × 10-9LHCb (at 95% CL) < 7.7 × 10-9(CMS arXiv:1203.3976) < 22 × 10-9(ATLAS CONF-2012-010)

Combination BR < 4.2 × 10-9 (at 95% CL)

[JHEP 1010 009]

cp violation in b s mixing
CP violation in Bsmixing

Analogous to sin2bmesured in Bd->J/y Ks

Here Bs->J/yf

Results correlated with DGs = width difference of the Bs mass-eigenstates plotted as contours in (fsvsDGs) plane

  • LHCb result consistent with Standard Model fs= -0.036 ± 0.002 rad First significant direct measurement of DGs = 0.116 ± 0.018 ± 0.006 ps-1
  • fsalso measured in a second mode: Bs J/yf0Combined result: fs = -0.002 ± 0.083 ± 0.027 rad

Impact of Bs results

  • LHCb results provide strong constraints on possible models for new physicslimit on Bsm+m-constraining SUSY at high tan band combination of Bsm+m-andfsrestricting various models:

[N. Mahmoudi, Moriond QCD]

[D. Straub, arXiv:1107.0266]

Direct exclusion(CMS 4.4 fb-1)



a surprise cpv in charm decay
A surprise ? CPV in Charm decay
  • Expected to be small in the SM (< 10-3)
  • Enormous statistics available: >106 D0 K+K- from D*+ D0p+Charge of p from D* determines D flavour
  • DACP = difference in CP asymmetry forD0  K+K- and D0 p+p- Robust: detection and production asymmetries cancel (at first order)

DACP = (-0.82 ± 0.21 ± 0.11)% Zero CPV is excluded at 3.5 s

  • Before the LHCb result: “CP violation…at the percent level signals new physics” [Y. Grossman, arXiv:hep-ph/0609178] (and many others)

After: “We have shown that it is plausible that the SM accounts for the measured value… Nevertheless, new physics could be at play”[J.Brodet al, arXiv:1111.5000]

3 searching for the higgs
3: Searching for the Higgs
  • Status with full 2011 dataset
  • SM Higgs boson excluded with 95% cl up to a mass of 600 GeVexcept for the window 122.5 to 127.5 GeV
  • Interesting fluctuations around masses of 124-126 GeV
  • 2012 run8 TeV, expect ~15fb-1
  • First 6fb-1 will most probably be disclosed next week at ICHEP12
  • SM-Higgs Boson up to a mass of some 600 GeV will either be discovered or ruled out until end 2012
  • Finding the Higgs Boson would be a fantastic discovery, awaited since ~45 years
  • Not finding the Higgs would be an even greater surprise (probably more difficult to explain to the public and our financing agencies…)

x2 more luminosity recorded

Efficiencies increased

More news in a couple of days

(4th July 9.00)

Stay tuned

4 direct searches for bsm physics
4: direct searches for BSM Physics

We know that even with the Higgs, the SM is incomplete

Neutrino Masses (ESM)

Dark Matter

Inclusion of Gravity in the picture


But it resists very strongly !


All these results are obtained due to the 3 components exceeding their expected performance

  • The LHC accelerator with brighter beams than expected and efficiency (37% stable beam in 2012 ) x ~2 more than assumed
  • The experiments with unprecedented efficiency (> 95%) and coping with a pileup in excess of what was foreseen for design luminosity (~20)
  • The computing GRID which exceeds also the transfer and processing rates
a look at the lhc future
A look at the LHC future

Predictable future (2012-2030)

Long term (> 2030)

the predictable future lhc time line
The predictable future: LHC Time-line

Start of LHC


Run 1: 7 TeV centre of mass energy, luminosity ramping up to few 1033 cm-2 s-1, few fb-1 delivered

LHC shut-down to prepare machine for design energy and nominal luminosity


Run 2: Ramp up luminosity to nominal (1034 cm-2 s-1), ~50 to 60 fb-1

Injector and LHC Phase-I upgrades to go to ultimate luminosity


Run 3: Ramp up luminosity to 2.2 x nominal, reaching ~100 fb-1 / year accumulate few hundred fb-1

Phase-II: High-luminosity LHC. New focussing magnets and CRAB cavities for very high luminosity with levelling


Run 4: Collect data until > 3000 fb-1

Next machine ?


post shut down performance t b c
Post Shut Down performance (t.b.c)
  • Depends on
  • Electrons cloud
  • Electronics radiation hardness –SEU’s
  • Emittance growth
  • …..
  • Wait and see !
ultimate step hl lhc for 2022
Ultimate step : HL-LHC for 2022

Work on the injectors (and LHC) to increase the beam brightness N/en

Cannot reduce the bunch spacing – stick with 25ns (50ns), 2808(1404) bunches

Use Crab cavities to recover the geometric reduction factor – and as a mechanism for Leveling

Decrease the b* to 10-20 cm

Implies new large aperture final focus quads but also implies lower value of Rθ

Goal is to reach >250 fb-1 per year and run until 2030

the predictable future lhc detectors time line
The predictable future: LHC detectors Time-line

Start of LHC


Consolidation of Infrastructure for all

CMS 4th Muon station forward

New reduced diameter Be beam pipes CMS & ATLAS

ATLAS : new pixel internal layer (IBL)


ATLAS: Upgrade Trigger, new small Muon wheels, FTK trigger, Forward physics

CMS : Upgrade Trigger, New pixel detector, New photosensors for HCAL, Forward Muon chambers

LHCb : Upgrade FE electronics: New 40 MHz readout, x10 luminosity !

ALICE : New vertex detector (ITS), faster TPC, DAQ,….


ATLAS: New central Tracker + …?

CMS : New central Tracker + ….

LHCb : continue until 50 fb-1

ALICE : continue until 10 nb-1




The longer term future

  • LHeC(medium term) ?
  • High Energy LHC ?
lhec electron proton collider
LHeC: electron-proton collider


new ring in

LHC tunnel,

with bypasses




e-/e+ injector

10 GeV,

10 min. filling time



linac with



or straight

Linac 60 GeV

√s ≥ 1.3 TeV

lhec physics
LHeC physics
  • Precise measurement of structure functions in a domain relevant for LHC
  • flavour content of proton for all flavours (u,d,c,s,b,t) and for the antiquarks
  • Precise measurement of EW (ex: sin2qW) or QCD (ex: aS) parameters
  • Very low x (saturation) domain
  • BSM search in specific domains (right handed currents, excited leptons, 1st gen, leptoquarks,..)
  • eA physics
  • CDR (physics + machine) submitted last week : arXiv:1206.2913
he lhc

Double (or even x 2.5) LHC energy

16 to 20 Teslas magnet compatible in size with LHC tunnel

he lhc lhc modifications
HE-LHC – LHC modifications




1.3 TeV

2-GeV Booster


S. Myers ECFA-EPS, Grenoble

2012 2013 deciding years
2012-2013: deciding years….

Experimental data will take the floor to drive the field to the next steps:

  • LHC results
  • q13 (T2K, DChooz, RENO, DayaBay,..) ✔
  • n masses/nature (Cuore, Gerda, Nemo…)
  • Dark Matter searches
  • Sky surveys (Fermi, Planck…..)
european strategy update
European Strategy Update
  • Update of Strategy defined in 2007
  • Process to be launched in the next weeks
  • Time scale defined by LHC results
    • meeting 10-12 September 2012 in Krakow
    • Finalisation spring 2013
in conclusion
In conclusion

Hard work and a lot of good results

Integrated luminosity records

Great Performance of accelerator& experiments

Grid computing outperforming its specs

So, what’s next ?

(Courtesy of S. Bertolucci)