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  1. Systemic Investigation of [AI+++] SI - 8 Idea of the experiment: • (1)Qualitativeinvestigation of [Al+++] in a systemic cycle. • (2) Preparation of different [Al+++] compounds. • (3)Inter-conversion of [Al+++] compounds.

  2. Exp. 1 Al+++ Chloride Salt White gelationus ppt. Aluminum hydroxide Exp. 2 HCl Exp. 3 Whit ppt. Aluminum phosphate Coloreless (SI-8) Reagents Used: • (1) Acid: • HCl: (1:1 solution). • (2) Alkali: • NaOH

  3. (3) Salts: • Sodium phosphate. Aluminum chloride, (5 gm) of the solid dissolved in (100 ml) of distilled water. • Exp. 1 Add (1 ml) of sodium hydroxide solution to ca. (2 ml) of aluminum chloride solution. What do you observe? • Observation: White gelatinous ppt. of Al (OH)3. • Equation:

  4. Exp. 2 Dissolve the precipitate obtained from experiment (1) in (2 ml) NaOH solution. What do you observe? • Observation: The precipitate dissolves in NaOH. • Equation: • Exp. 3 1- Add one ml of HCl to the solution produced from exp. 2. What do you observe?

  5. Observation: White ppt. of Al(OH)3. • Equation: 1- Dissolve the precipitate obtained in 0.5 ml of HCl and then add few drops of sodium phosphate. What do you observe? • Observation: White ppt. of aluminum Phosphate. • Equation: • Finally • Dissolving the Al PO4 precipitate in HCl, gives the starting solution of AlCl3.

  6. Systemic Investigation of [Fe+++] SI - 9 Idea of the experiment: • (1)Qualitative investigationof [Fe+++] in a systemic cycle. • (2) Preparation of different [Fe+++] compounds. • (3)Inter-conversion of [Fe+++] compounds.

  7. Fe+++ Chloride salt Exp.1 HCl (Violet color) Iron salycilate complex Exp.2 (Reddish brown ppt.) Iron (III) hydroxide (SI - 9) Reagents Used: • (1) Acid: • HCl: (1:1 solution). • Salicylic acid • (2) Alkali: • Sodium hydroxide

  8. (3) Salts: • Ferric chloride, (5 gm) of the solid dissolved in (100 ml) of distilled water. • Exp. 1 Add (1 ml) of sodium hydroxide solution to ca. (2 ml) of Iron (III) solution. What do you observe? • Observation: Reddish brown ppt. of iron (III) hydroxide. • Equation:

  9. Exp. 2 Dissolve the precipitate from experiment (1) in (1 ml) dil HCl and then add few drops of salicylic acid. What do you observe? • Observation: Violet colour of iron salicylate complex. • Finally • Dissolving iron salicylate complex in HCl, gives the starting solution of FeCl3.

  10. IF EXP. (II) GIVES NO PRECIPITATE THEN CARRY OUT EXP. IV EXPERIMENT. IV To (1 ml) of the unknown solution, add (2ml) of ammonium chloride and (1 ml) of ammonium hydroxide and (1 ml) of sodium sulphide solution. What do you observe? Observation:

  11. Systemic Investigation of [Ni2+] (SI - 10) Idea of experiment: • (1)Qualitative investigation of [Ni2+] in a systemic cycle. • (2) Preparation of different [Ni2+] compounds. • (3)Inter-conversion of [Ni2+] compounds.

  12. Ni2+ Exp.1 HCl Chloride Salt Green ppt. Ni (OH)2 Exp.2 Red ppt. Ni (DMG)2 Blue solution. [Ni (NH3)4]2+ Green ppt. Ni (OH)2 Exp.3 Exp.4 (SI - 10) Reagents Used: • - Nickel chloride • - Dimethylglyoxime. • - Sodium hydroxide. • - Ammonium Hydroxide. • - Hydrochloric acid.

  13. Exp. 1 Add (1/2 ml) of NH4OH very dilute solution to ca. (2ml) of nickel chloride solution. What do you observe? Observation: Green ppt. of nickel hydroxide. Equation: Exp. 2 Dissolve the precipitate obtained from exp.1 in excess NH4OH ca. (2ml). What do you observe?

  14. Observation: Blue solution of [Ni(NH3)4]2+ complex. Exp. 3 Add (1 ml) of NaOH to the solution produced from exp. 2. What do you observe? Observation: Green ppt. of Ni(OH)2. Exp.4 Add (1 ml) of NH4Cl to the precipitate obtained from exp. 3. to dissolve the ppt. Then, add ca. (1/2 ml) of dimethylglyoxime. What do you observe? Observation: Red ppt. of nickel dimethylglyoxime complex.

  15. Finally • Addition of (1-2 ml) of HCl to the complex obtained from exp. 4 gives the starting NiCl2 solution. Systemic Investigation of [CO2+] (SI - 11) Idea of the experiment: • (1)Qualitativeinvestigation of [CO2+] in a systemic cycle. • (2) Preparation of different [CO2+] compounds. • (3)Inter-conversion of [CO2+] compounds.

  16. CoCl2 Exp.1 HCl Chloride Salt Pink solution Cobalt amine complex Blue ppt. Co (OH)2 Exp.3 Exp.2 Blue ppt. Basic cobalt salt (SI - 11) Reagents Used: • - HCl (1:1 Solution). • - HNO3 (1:1 Solution). • - Cobalt (II) Chloride. • - Sodium Hydroxide. • - Ammonium Hydroxide.

  17. Exp. 1 Add ca. (1/2 ml) of NH4OH solution to ca. (2 ml) of CoCl2 solution. What do you observe? Observation: Blue ppt of Co(OH)2. Equation: Exp. 2 Dissolve the precipitate from experiment (1) in (2 ml) NH4OH, and then add (1 ml) of NaOH. What do you observe? Observation: Blue ppt of basic cobalt salt.

  18. Exp. 3 Heat the precipitate obtained from exp. 2. What do you observe? • Observation: Pink solution of cobalt - amine complex. • Finally • Addition of HCl to the solution obtained from exp. 3, gives the starting CoCl2 solution.

  19. Systemic Investigation of [Mn2+] (SI - 12) Idea of the experiment: • (1)Qualitative investigationof [Mn2+] in a systemic cycle. • (2) Preparation of different [Mn2+] compounds. • (3)Inter-conversion of [Mn2+] compounds.

  20. Mn2+ Chloride salt Exp.1 HCl Buff ppt. MnS Exp.2 Buff ppt. Mn (OH)2 (SI - 12) Reagents Used: • - Manganese chloride. • - HCl, (1:1 Solution). • - Ammonium Chloride. • - Ammonium Hydroxide. • - Sodium sulphide.

  21. Exp. 1 Add (1 ml) of ammonium hydroxide to ca. (2 ml) of manganese chloride solution. What do you observe? • Observation: Buff ppt. of Mn(OH)2 • Equation: • Exp. 2 Add ca. (2 ml) of ammonium chloride to the precipitate obtained from exp. 1 and then add (1 ml) of sodium sulphide. What do you observe?

  22. Observation: Buff ppt of MnS. • Equation: • Finally • dissolving the precipitate obtained from exp. 2 in conc. HCl, gives the starting solution of MnCl2