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Narcolepsy. -Chronic sleep disorder -disorder is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness - Person feels extreme fatigue and falls asleep at inappropriate times -Sudden attack of REM Sleep. Causes of Narcolepsy.

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-Chronic sleep disorder

-disorder is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness

-Person feels extreme fatigue and

falls asleep at inappropriate times

-Sudden attack of REM Sleep

causes of narcolepsy
Causes of Narcolepsy

-people with narcolepsy have a reduced numbers of protein producing neurons that control appetite and sleep patterns

-These proteins are called hypocretin or orexin

A depiction of the neuropeptide Orexin A. People with narcolepsy often have a reduced number of neurons that produce this protein.


- Excessive sleepiness

- Temporary decrease or loss of muscle control

- Vivid dream like images

- Unable to move or talk while asleep


- Has been calculated to be 0.03%

- Can occur during anytime in life

- Mostly affects teens

- Has been found to be hereditary

treatment of narcolepsy
Treatment of Narcolepsy!


Such as stimulants, antidepressants, and sodium oxybate!

Take a short nap!

Taking short, scheduled naps may

be a great way to lessen the effects of narcolepsy

restless leg syndrome
Restless Leg Syndrome
  • Symptoms:Creeping or crawling sensations that make the legs uncomfortable unless they are moving.
  • Prevalence: Millions of people are affected by RLS.
  • Definition:A sleep disorder characterized by leg discomfort during sleep, which is only relieved by frequent movements of the legs.
  • Causes: In most patients, the cause is unknown. However, RLS has been linked to pregnancy, obesity, smoking, and anemia.
  • Treatment: Reduction or elimination of caffeine and alcohol, stopping smoking, and better sleep and exercise can all help patients with RLS.
periodic leg movement disorder
Periodic Leg Movement Disorder
  • Symptoms: Repetitive cramping or jerking of legs while sleeping. Movements are rhythmic and occur every 20-40 seconds.
  • Prevalence: This disorder is more common in elderly or middle aged people.
  • Definition: A disorder in which the patient is awakened repeatedly during the night by cramps in the calf muscles.
  • Causes: Has no known cause. Has been linked to abnormalities in regulation of nerves traveling from brain to legs.
  • Treatment: Various medications may help. Sleeping pills prevent frequent awakenings, but do not stop the movements. Painkillers reduce movement, but don’t stop the insomnia.
sleep apnea and snoring

Sleep Apnea and Snoring

By Jenna and Emily



  • Sleep apnea is caused by not enough air can get to your lungs. This could because the person has a cold or allergies.
  • Snoring is caused by too much throat or nasal tissues. Also the position of the tongue can cause snoring.


  • Nasal strips or spray
  • Sleep on side
  • Elevate head 4-6 in

Sleep Apnea is when someone temporary stops breathing in their sleep.

Snoring is a rattling noise made by someone when they are sleeping usually from the back of their mouth or noise.

symptoms and prevalence


-When airway is blocked soft tissue in the throat collapses and closes while asleep

-Irritable, lack of sleep, soar throat, emotional issues, morning headaches, loss of energy, loud snoring, daytime sleepiness possibly while driving

-approximately 1 in 15 people in USA

-more likely for men than women

sleepwalking by charita donahue

SleepwalkingBy: Charita Donahue

Purposeful moving, usually but not always including walking, while in a deep stage (stage 4) of sleep.


open eyes glassy, staring appearance as the person quietly roams.


Sleep deprivation, chaotic sleep schedules, fever, stress, magnesium deficiency, and alcohol intoxication can trigger sleepwalking.






Trazodone (Desyrel)

  • Get adequate sleep
  • Limit stresss. Meditate or do relaxation exercises.
  • Avoid any kind of stimuli (auditory or visual) prior to bedtime


Sleepwalking is common in children. 3% to 17% of children sleepwalk.

It peaks between the ages of 10 and 12. It rarely continues on into adulthood, and is even more unlikely to first develop in adulthood. Under 1% of adults sleepwalk.

  • Insomnia is defined as a persistent difficulty in falling asleep. Also, waking up and not feeling rested and restored.
  • Insomnia is caused by:
    • Psychoactive drugs or stimulants
    • Hormone shifts (menstruation & menopause)
    • Life problems: Fear, stress, & anxiety
symptoms prevalence
Difficulty falling asleep

Waking up frequently during the night


Difficulty concentrating

Daytime sleepiness

30-40% of adults say they have symptoms of insomnia in a given year.

10-15% of adults say they have chronic insomnia. (when it persists for longer than a month.)

Symptoms & Prevalence

REM Behavior Disorder



patient may wake spontaneously during the attack and vividly recall the dream that corresponds to the physical action

Potentially dangerous objects should be removed from the bedroom, and the mattress should be placed on the floor or a cushion should be put around the bed

RBD can be treated by various medications; however, the response varies in individual cases

acting out violent dreams during REM sleep

often causing self-injury or injury to the bed partner

behaviors are usually nondirected

can include punching, kicking, leaping, crying out, or running from bed while still in REM sleep


REM Behavior Disorder

36% of people with narcolepsy experience symptoms of RBD

several studies have suggested that idiopathic RBD is linked with the later development of neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson disease and Lewy body dementia

RBD may occur in association with various neurological conditions such as vascular lesions, brainstem neoplasm, autoimmune/inflammatory disorders, and neurodegenerative disorders


2% overall prevalence of violent behaviors during sleep

25% of which were likely to be due to RBD

=0.5% of RBD in general population


*exact incidence and prevalence of RBD are unknown because of inadequate reporting and misdiagnosis


REM Behavior Disorder


REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder characterized by loss of normal voluntary muscle atonia during REM sleep associated with complex motor behavior while dreaming.


night terrors and nightmares

Night Terrors and Nightmares

By : Ashley Merrick, and Dan

symptoms night terrors
Symptoms Night terrors
  • Screaming, kicking, thrashing, and flailing
  • One third sleep walk
  • Disorientated, eyes can be open with pupils fully dilated
  • Change in body
  • Not easily awakened
  • Last 1-15 minutes
  • Stage 4, Physical effects (breathing, heart rate, sweating, etc)
symptoms nightmares
  • Vivid realistic dreams causing fear
  • Being afraid after dreams
  • Remembering the dream
  • Occur during REM sleep
prevalence night terrors
PrevalenceNight terrors
  • Mainly boys
  • Ages 3-5
  • Rare after age 12
prevalence nightmares
  • Can not be known
  • People do not record nightmares
definition night terrors and nightmares
DefinitionNight terrors and Nightmares
  • Nightmares/Night Terrors-are dreams that scare people and cause them to wake up. Night Terrors are much more severe and usually leave the person moaning, crying, gasping, a screaming. They are so severe the fear can last from 5 to 20 minutes. It is also so scary a person’s heartbeat is usually about 160 to 170 beats per minute.
causes night terrors and nightmares
CausesNight terrors and Nightmares
  • No one is for sure on the causes but things like stress or medications that heavily affect the brain can bring them on. Also over sleeping or being over tired.
  •  Some doctors think spicy food might have some relevance
treatment night terrors
TreatmentNight Terrors
  • Do not awaken
  • Protect from harm
  • Give affection (hug, sing)
  • Severe cases doctors will give Benzodiazepine tranquillizers such as diazepam that will prevent stage 4 sleep (not recommended)
treatment nightmares
  • If on drugs, stop taking them
  • If reoccurring see a therapist
  • Avoid spicy food
night terrors causes treatment of disorder
Night TerrorsCauses/Treatment of Disorder


  • Stressful Life Events
  • Fever
  • Sleep Deprivation
  • Medications that affect the central nervous system (brain)


  • Make the child’s room safe so they don’t get hurt
  • Eliminate all sources of sleep disturbance
  • Maintain a consistent bed time routine and wake up routine
nightmares causes treatment of disorder
NightmaresCauses/Treatment of disorder


  • Psychiatric disorders
  • MAJOR Physiological traumas, such as PTSD
  • Stress
  • Medications or Drug Abuse


  • Treating the underlying cause
  • Medications
  • Relaxation or Chillaxing, such as Yoga and such.
swsd and jet lag

SWSD and Jet Lag

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

swsd shift work sleep disorder
SWSD (Shift Work Sleep Disorder)
  • Symptoms are excessive sleepiness, insomnia, difficulty concentrating, headaches, and lack of energy.
  • Prevalence are people who may frequently rotate shifts or work at night.
  • Treatments are being put on medication, and try not to get your work shifted if possible.
jet lag
Jet Lag
  • Symptoms are fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, constipation, diarrhea, confusion, dehydration, headaches, irritability, nausea, sweating, coordination problems, and memory loss.
  • Prevalence: affects most people who fly that cross five or more time zones. Severity increases with number of zones they travel through.
  • Treatments are to be put on medication.