The resurgence of empire in east asia
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The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia. Chapter 14 . The Sui Dynasty (589-618 CE). Regional kingdoms succeed collapse of Han dynasty Yang Jian consolidates control of all of China, initiates Sui Dynasty Massive building projects  paid for with high taxes Military labor

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The sui dynasty 589 618 ce
The Sui Dynasty (589-618 CE)

  • Regional kingdoms succeed collapse of Han dynasty

  • Yang Jian consolidates control of all of China, initiates Sui Dynasty

  • Massive building projects  paid for with high taxes

    • Military labor

    • Conscripted labor

The grand canal
The Grand Canal

  • Intended to promote trade between north and south China

    • Most Chinese rivers flow west-east

  • Linked network of earlier canals

    • 1240 miles (2000 km)

    • Roads on either bank

  • Succeeded only by railroad traffic in 20th century

The tang dynasty 618 907 ce
The Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE)

  • Wide discontent over conscripted labor in Sui dynasty

  • Military failures in Korea prompt rebellion

  • Emperor assassinated in 618

    • Tang Dynasty initiated

Tang taizong
Tang Taizong

  • Second emperor of Tang dynasty (r. 627-649 CE)

  • Murdered two brothers, thrust father aside to take throne

  • Strong ruler

    • Built capital at Chang’an

    • Law and order

    • Taxes, prices low

    • More effective implementation of earlier Sui policies

Major achievements of tang dynasty
Major achievements of Tang Dynasty

  • Transportation and communications

    • Extensive postal, courier services

  • Equal-field System

    • 20% of land hereditary ownership

    • 80% redistributed according to formula

      • Family size, land fertility

    • Worked well until 8th century

      • Corruption, loss of land to Buddhist monasteries

Bureaucracy of merit
Bureaucracy of Merit

  • MERITOCRACY: Society where advancement is based on achievement, not political or family connection

  • Imperial civil service examinations

    • Confucian educational curriculum

  • Some bribery, nepotism

  • But most advance through merit

    • Built loyalty to the dynasty

    • System remains strong until early 20th century

Tang military expansion and foreign relations
Tang Military Expansion and Foreign Relations

  • Manchuria, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet

  • One of the largest expansions of China in its history

  • Established tributary relationships

    • Gifts

  • China as “Middle Kingdom”

    • The kowtow ritual

Tang decline
Tang Decline

  • Governmental neglect: Emperor obsessed with music,favorite concubine

  • 755: Rebellion under An Lushan, former military commander

  • Captures Chang’an, but rebellion crushed by 763

Tang decline1
Tang Decline

  • Nomadic Uighur mercenaries invited to suppress rebellion, sacked Chang’an and Luoyang

  • Tang decline continues

    • Rebellions in 9th century

    • 907: Last emperor abdicates


Song dynasty 960 1279 ce
Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE)

  • Emphasis on administration, industry, education, the arts

  • Military not emphasized

  • Direction of first emperor, Song Taizu (r. 960-976 CE)

    • Former military leader

    • Made emperor by troops

    • Instituted policy of imperial favor for civil servants, expanded meritocracy

Song weaknesses
Song Weaknesses

  • Size of bureaucracy heavy drain on economy

    • Two peasant rebellions in 12th c.

    • Internal inertia prevents reform of bureaucracy

  • Civil service leadership of military

    • Lacked military training

    • Unable to contain nomadic attacks

    • Jurchen conquer, force Song dynasty to Hangzhou, southern China (Southern Song)

Agricultural economies of the tang and song dynasties
Agricultural Economies of the Tang and Song Dynasties

  • Developed Vietnamese fast-ripening rice, leading to two crops per year

  • Technology: iron plows, use of draft animals

  • Soil fertilization, improved irrigation

    • Water wheels, canals

  • Terrace farming

Population growth
Population Growth

  • Result of increased agricultural production

  • Effective food distribution system

    • Transportation networks built under Tang and Song dynasties


  • Chang’an: World’s most populous city 2 million residents

    • Southern Song capital Hangzhou over 1 million

    • Several cities over 100,000

Patriarchal social structures
Patriarchal Social Structures

  • Increased emphasis on ancestor worship

    • Elaborate grave rituals

    • Extended family gatherings in honor of deceased ancestors

  • Footbinding gains popularity

    • Increased control by male family members

Technology and industry
Technology and Industry

  • Porcelain (“Chinaware”)

  • Increase of iron production due to use of coke, not coal, in furnaces

    • Agricultural tools, weaponry

  • Gunpowder invented

  • Earlier printing techniques refined

    • Moveable type by mid-11th century

    • Yet complex Chinese ideographs make wood block technique easier

  • Naval technology  magnetic compass

Emergence of a market economy
Emergence of a Market Economy

  • “Flying cash:” Letters of credit developed to deal with copper coin shortages

    • Promissory notes, checks also used

  • Development of independently producedpaper money

    • Not as stable, riots when not honored

  • Government claims monopoly on money production in 11th century

China and the hemispheric economy
China and the Hemispheric Economy

  • Increasingly cosmopolitan nature of Chinese cities

  • Chinese silk opens up trade routes, but increases local demands for imported luxury goods

Cultural change in tang and song china
Cultural Change in Tang and Song China

  • Declining confidence in Confucianism after collapse of Han dynasty

  • Increasing popularity of Buddhism

  • Christianity, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, Islam also appear

  • Clientele primarily foreign merchant class


  • Mahayana Buddhism especially popular in western China (Gansu province), 600-1000 CE

  • Buddhist temples, libraries built

  • Economic success as converts donate land holdings

  • Increased popularity through donations of agricultural produce to the poor

Conflicts with chinese culture
Conflicts with Chinese Culture


  • Text-based (Buddhist teachings)

  • Emphasis on Metaphysics

  • Ascetic ideal

    • Celibacy

    • isolation


  • Text-based (Confucian teachings)

  • Daoism not text-based

  • Emphasis on ethics, politics

  • Family-centered

    • Procreation

    • Filial piety

Chan zen buddhism
Chan (Zen) Buddhism

  • Buddhists adapt ideology to Chinese climate

    • Dharmatranslated as dao

    • Nirvanatranslated as wuwei

  • Accommodated family lifestyle

    • “One son in monastery for ten generations of salvation”

  • Limited emphasis on textual study, meditation instead

Persecution of buddhists
Persecution of Buddhists

  • Daoist/Confucian persecution supported in late Tang dynasty

  • 840s: Beginning of systematic closure of Buddhist temples,expulsions

    • Zoroastrians, Christians, Manicheans as well

  • Economic motive: seizure of large monastic landholdings

Neo confucianism

  • NEO-CONFUCIANISM: Blend of Confucian teachings with Buddhist traditions

  • Song dynasty refrains from persecuting Buddhists, but favors Confucians

  • Neo-Confucians influenced by Buddhist thought

  • Zhu Xi (1130-1200 CE) important synthesizer of the two schools of thought

  • Popular to 20th century

China and korea
China and Korea

  • Silla Dynasty: Tang armies withdraw, Korea recognizes Tang as emperor

  • Technically a vassal state, but highly independent

  • Chinese influence on Korean culture pervasive

China and vietnam
China and Vietnam

  • Vietnamese adaptation to Chinese culture, technology

  • But ongoing resentment at political domination

  • Assert independence when Tang dynasty falls in 10th century

China and early japan
China and Early Japan

  • Chinese armies never invade Japan

  • Yet Chinese culture pervasive

  • Imitation of Tang administration

    • Establishment of new capital at Nara, hence “Nara Japan” (710-794 CE)

  • Adoption of Confucian, Buddhist teachings

  • Yet retention of Shinto religion

Heian japan 794 1185 ce
Heian Japan (794-1185 CE)

  • Japanese emperor moves court to Heian (Kyoto)

  • Yet emperor figurehead, real power in hands of Fujiwara clan

    • Pattern in Japanese history: weak emperor, power behind the throne

    • Helps explain longevity of the institution

Japanese literature
Japanese Literature

  • Influence of Chinese kanjicharacters

    • Classic curriculum dominated by Chinese

  • Development of hiragana, katakana syllabic alphabet

  • Court life: The Tale of Genji

    • Written by woman with weak command of Chinese, becomes classic of early Japanese literature

Institution of the shogun
Institution of the Shogun

  • Civil war between Taira and Minamoto clans in 12th century

  • 1185 CE: Minamoto leader named shogun

  • SHOGUN: Japanese military leader who ruled in place of the emperor

  • Ruled from Kamakura, allowed imperial throne to continue in Kyoto

Medieval japan
Medieval Japan

  • Kamakura (1185-1333 CE) and Muromachi (1336-1573 CE) periods

  • Decentralized power in hands of warlords

  • Military authority in hands of samurai

  • Professional warriors

Who was included within the feudal social structure of japan
Who was included within the feudal social structure of Japan?

  • Emperor – held highest rank in society but had no political power

  • Shogun (military dictator) – actual ruler

  • Daimyo (lord) – large landowners

  • Samurai – skilled warriors loyal to daimyo

  • Peasants and artisans – ¾ of the population

  • Merchants – low status but gradually gained influence



Code of conduct



Code of chivalry

Women seen as weak, but idolized



Code of bushido

Women expected to live by honor and courage (even fought in battle)

Code of conduct