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6. P A R T A. Bones and Skeletal Tissues. Bones and Cartilages of the Human Body. Figure 6.1. Classification of Bones. Axial skeleton – bones of the ___________________, ___________________, and ___________________

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Bones and Skeletal Tissues


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    1. 6 P A R T A Bones and Skeletal Tissues

    2. Bones and Cartilages of the Human Body Figure 6.1

    3. Classification of Bones • Axial skeleton – bones of the ___________________, ___________________, and ___________________ • Appendicular skeleton – bones of the upper and lower ___________________, ___________________, and ___________________

    4. Classification of Bones: By Shape • ________________bones – longer than they are wide • Example: • _________________ • __________________ • __________________ Figure 6.2a

    5. Classification of Bones: By Shape • ________________ bones • Cube-shaped bones • _________________ • __________________ • __________________ Figure 6.2b

    6. Classification of Bones: By Shape • _______________ bones – thin, flattened, and a bit curved • _________________ • __________________ • __________________ Figure 6.2c

    7. Classification of Bones: By Shape • _______________bones – bones with complicated shapes • _________________ • __________________ • __________________ Figure 6.2d

    8. Function of Bones • Support – form the framework that ____________________ the body and ____________________ soft organs • Protection – provide a protective case for the ____________________, ____________________, ____________________ • Movement – provide ____________________ for muscles

    9. Function of Bones • Mineral storage – ____________________ for minerals, especially ____________________ and ____________________ • Blood cell formation – ____________________ occurs within the ____________________ cavities of bones

    10. Bone Textures • Compact bone – dense ____________________ that looks smooth and solid to the naked eye • Spongy bone – ____________________which looks like a honeycomb of small pieces –____________________ • Spaces between trabeculae filled with ____________________

    11. Structure of Long Bone Figure 6.3a

    12. Structure of Long Bone Diaphysis: • Tubular shaft that forms the axis of long bones • Composed of ____________________ bone that surrounds the ____________________ (marrow) cavity- contains yellow bone marrow (fat)

    13. Structure of Long Bone • Epiphyses: • Expanded ends of long bones • Exterior- ____________________ bone • Interior- ____________________ bone • Joint surface is covered with ____________________ (hyaline) cartilage • Epiphyseal line separates the diaphysis from the epiphyses

    14. Structure of Long Bone Figure 6.3

    15. Structure of Long Bone Figure 6.3b

    16. Structure of Long Bone Figure 6.3c

    17. Bone Membranes • ____________________– double-layered protective membrane on external surface of bone • Outer fibrous layer - dense regular ____________________ tissue • Inner layer- ____________________(“bone-making”) and ____________________ (“bone-breaking”) • Richly supplied with ____________________, ____________________, and lymphatic vessels, that enter the bone via nutrient foramina • Secured to underlying bone by Sharpey’s fibers

    18. Bone Membranes • ____________________ – delicate membrane covering internal surfaces of bone

    19. Structure of Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones • Thin plates of _____________________________ compact bone on the outside • ____________________ bone (diploë) on the inside • Have no ____________________ or ____________________ • Contain bone marrow between the ____________________

    20. Structure of a Flat Bone Figure 6.4

    21. Location of Hematopoietic Tissue (Red Marrow) • In infants • Found in the medullary cavity and all areas of ____________________ bone • In adults • Found in the diploë of flat bones, and the head of the ________________________________ and _____________________________________

    22. Microscopic Structure of Bone: Compact Bone • Haversian system (osteon) – the structural unit of compact bone • ___________________________________ – weight-bearing, column-like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen • _______________________________________, or central canal – central channel containing blood vessels and nerves

    23. Microscopic Structure of Bone: Compact Bone • ____________________ – mature bone cells • ____________________ – small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes

    24. Microscopic Structure of Bone: Compact Bone Figure 6.6a, b

    25. Microscopic Structure of Bone: Compact Bone Figure 6.6a

    26. Microscopic Structure of Bone: Compact Bone Figure 6.6b

    27. Microscopic Structure of Bone: Compact Bone Figure 6.6c

    28. Chemical Composition of Bone: Organic • ____________________– bone-forming cells • ____________________ – mature bone cells • ____________________ – large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix • ____________________ – ground substance and collagen fibers

    29. Chemical Composition of Bone: Inorganic • Mineral salts • Sixty-five percent of bone by mass • Mainly calcium phosphates • Responsible for bone ____________________ and its resistance to ____________________

    30. Bone Development • ____________________ __________________ • And ____________________________________ – the process of bone tissue formation, which leads to: • The formation of the bony skeleton in embryos • Bone growth until early adulthood • Bone thickness, remodeling, and repair

    31. Formation of the Bony Skeleton • Begins at week 8 of embryo development • _____________________________ ossification – bone develops from a fibrous membrane • ____________________ _________ossification – bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage

    32. Intramembranous Ossification • Formation of most of the flat bones of the skull and the clavicles • Fibrous connective tissue membranes are formed by ____________________ _____________cells