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Ch 2: Ecosystem

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  1. Ch 2: Ecosystem ESS Ms. Wilson 9/12

  2. 2.1 4 Types of Population Interactions • Competition • Predation • Parasitism • Mutualism

  3. Competition • Intraspecific • More species of the same size, more competition there is • Interspecific • Niches overlap • Better competitors suffer less • Figure 2.8 \/

  4. Predation • Negative feedback loop • Give me an example…

  5. Parasitism • Ectoparasites • Endoparasites

  6. Mutualism • Both benefit • Example: zooanthellae

  7. 2.2Abiotic Ecosystems • Marine • Salinity • pH • Temperature • Dissolved oxygen • waves • Freshwater • Turbidity • Flow velocity • pH • Temp • Dissolved oxygen • Terrestrial • Temp • Light intensity • Wind • Particle size • Slope • Soil moisture • Drainage • Mineral content • Around here? • Figure 2.11 \/

  8. How to measure each • Light: light meter • Temp: electric thermometer (why not mercury?) • pH: pH meter • Wind: anemometer • Particle size: ruler or sifter • Dissolved oxygen and wave action (inversely proportional) • Slope: clinometer [tan(degree read)*100 • Soil moisture: weight after heated • Mineral content: LOI test (mass lost) • Flow velocity: surface or flowmeter • Salinity: electric conductor (ppt) • Turbidity: secchi disk

  9. 2.3 Biotic Components of Ecosystems • Dichotomous Key – ex: bats in Costa Rica • Often times subjective • % cover – immobile organisms

  10. Lincoln Index • Collecting and marking • Capture-mark-release-recapture • N=n1*n2/m

  11. Quadrats • Limit sampling area – random is best • Stratified random sampling with 2 different habitats • Put them at set distances (transecting) • Systematic sampling • Continuous sampling: across entire transect • Population density: # individuals of each sp. per unit area • #sp/total area • Percentage frequency: % of total quadrat number sp. is present in • Estimating biomass • Does not include water • Take 1 area’s mass, then multiply to estimate • KIVA: pg 33 philosophy

  12. Diversity and Simpson’s diversity index • Diversity is not an old wooden ship. • Diversity: # diff. sp & # ind. of each sp. • High D – stable and ancient • Low D – pollution, recent colonization • Equation (don’t need to memorize but need to know what the symbols are): D=[N(N-1)]/[Ʃn(n-1)] • D=diversity index • N=total number of all sp. found • n=number of ind. of a particular sp. • Ʃ=sum

  13. 2.4 Biomes • Many ecosystems within same climate • What controls climate?

  14. Homework: • Each person select a biome and research it • Climate: temp, precipitation and insulation

  15. Atmospheric Circulation

  16. What are the green areas?

  17. Tropical Rainforest • Rains daily – very humid • Creates cumulus clouds • Temp around 80 degrees F • Common organisms: Gorillas, orangutan, spider monkey, whiptail lizard, toucans, collared aracari, rufous, motmot, cicada, pleasing fungus beetle, wasp, Bullet ant, walking stick, dart frog, coatimundi, Leaf frog, butterfly, collared peccary • Sources: www.marietta.edu and www.bioexpedition.com

  18. What are the red areas?

  19. Desert • Cold desert: • Soil produces insensitive plants • Receives a lot of snow, melt is stored in soil • Winter temp averages 2-4 degrees C • Summer temp averages 20-26 degrees C • Organisms: jack rabbits, kangaroo rats, mice and squirrels • Ex: Utah region

  20. What are the dark brown areas?

  21. Tundra • Marine biome rich in nutrients from land locked in ice • Organisms: polar bear, sea lion, penguins, fish, birds, plankton • Ex: North Pole

  22. What are the green areas?

  23. Temperate Forest • Precipitation: 20cm-200cm in form of snow • Temp averages -5 – 15 degrees C • Organisms: firs, pines, spruces, hemlock, lichen, moss, birch, deer, snowshoe hare, porcupine, bobcat, lynx, fox, and elk • Large threat: exploration and development of oil and natural gas

  24. What are the yellow areas?

  25. Grasslands • Temp: stays relatively warm year round • Winter: long and dry (~4 inches) • Summer: very wet (25 inches) • Organisms: Plants adapted to much water, (marsh) deer, large cats, ungulates, kangaroo – all adapted to long/fast travel • One of the most studied climates • Ex: African Savanna or South America (mostly flooded) Australia’s “bush”/“the scrub”

  26. 2.5 Function of Ecosystems