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Need to revise recommendations for emergency water treatment with bleach in the United States. Daniele Lantagne, Bobbie Person, Natalie Smith, Ally Mayer, Kelsey Preston, Elizabeth Blanton, Kristen Jellison Centers for Disease Control and Prevention & Lehigh University.
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Daniele Lantagne, Bobbie Person, Natalie Smith, Ally Mayer, Kelsey Preston, Elizabeth Blanton, Kristen Jellison
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention & Lehigh University
If you can't boil water, you can disinfect it using household bleach. Bleach will kill some, but not all, types of disease-causing organisms that may be in the water. If the water is cloudy, filter it through clean cloths or allow it to settle, and draw off the clear water for disinfection. Add 1/8 teaspoon (or 8 drops) of regular, unscented, liquid household bleach for each gallon of water, stir it well and let it stand for 30 minutes before you use it. Store disinfected water in clean containers with covers.
Additionally, in the more information section, the instructions read “double the amount of chlorine for cloudy, murky or colored water or water that is extremely cold.”Current EPA Emergency Guidelines
1/8 teaspoon (5.25% bleach in 1 gallon): 8.67 mg/L
8 drops (5.25% bleach, 1 gallon, 15-25 drops/mL):4.44 - 5.55 mg/L
EPA maximum: 4 mg/L
WHO maximum: 5 mg/L
Used in HWTS in developing countries: 2 mg/L
Double these doses for turbid waterConcerns with guidelines - technical
Result: Need data from US
6 states: Colorado, Georgia, Minnesota, Penn, Texas, Wash
6 waters: tap, water heater, surface (filtered & not), wells
Dosage testing at 3 doses, including microbiology and CT-factor
3 states: Louisiana, Florida, Georgia
Household visits to 9 families with four directions
Observe and test ability to make solutionMethods
6 surface water (raw, filtration through linen napkin)
pH: mean 7.85 (range: 6.5-9.4)
7/36 exceeded 8.0
Turbidity: mean 3.89 NTU (range: 0-23.2)
18/36 (50%) >1.0 NTU; 4/36 (11%) between 10-100 NTU
Temperature varied geographically and seasonally
E. coli only in surface water (<10–180 CFU/100 mL)
Total Coliforms found in 18/36 samplesQuantitative results - water quality (36)
FCR maintenance / FCR guidelines
the inactivation of Giardia in surface waters
the absence of E. coli / Total Coliform
a CT-factor to remove the majority of bacteria and viruses that cause diarrheal disease
a combination of the above?
In any case, current dosages are too highQuantitative results - Standard?
A minority knew about bleach for treatment
None knew dosage
All reported serious concerns (Poison Control Center)
Stated instructions are too confusing
“Bleach will kill some, but not all, types of disease-causing organisms.”
Laminated instruction, container, pre-measured doseQualitative results - Stakeholder meetings (86)
6/9 had bleach in home
None was unscented, non-expired, near 5.25%
1/9 families had a 1/8 teaspoon
2/9 had dropper
4/9 had a gallon container
Existing (1/8 tsp), existing (8 drops), other dropper, stock solution (WHO)
Dropper method easiest, most accurate, and preferred
Improve by having 2-L container, pictoral directionsQualitative results - Household interviews