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Chapter 10. Violence Against Girls and Women. _____________________________. Sexual Harassment at School. Sexual harassment in an educational setting: Unwelcome verbal or physical behavior of a sexual nature when

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chapter 10
Chapter 10

Violence Against Girls and Women


sexual harassment at school
Sexual Harassment at School

Sexual harassment in an educational setting: Unwelcome verbal or physical behavior of a sexual nature when

  • Submission to or rejection of the behavior forms the basis for decisions about the student (e.g., admission, grades)
  • The behavior creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive study environment


sexual harassment at school1
Sexual Harassment at School

Elementary and secondary school

  • Reports of student sexual harassment on the rise
    • Incidence
    • Types of harassment
    • Gender differences
  • Experiences of harassment more stressful for girls than for boys


sexual harassment at school2
Sexual Harassment at School

The college campus

  • Gender differences in classifying behavior as sexual harassment
  • Controversies in definition
  • Incidence of sexual harassment
    • Difficult to assess
  • Responses to sexual harassment


sexual harassment in the workplace
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

Sexual harassment in the workplace: Unwelcome verbal or physical behavior when

  • Submission to or rejection of the behavior forms the basis for work-related decisions (quid pro quo)
  • The behavior creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment (hostile environment) (Morgan & Gruber, 2011)


sexual harassment in the workplace1
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace


  • Commonplace around the globe
  • Most commonly takes form of sexual remarks and jokes (Burn, 2011)


sexual harassment in the workplace2
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

Incidence, continued

  • Occupational characteristics related to sexual harassment
    • Male-dominated, blue-collar occupations
    • Military
  • Target characteristics related to sexual harassment
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Marital status
    • Sexual orientation
    • Ethnicity
  • Characteristics of offenders


sexual harassment in the workplace3
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace


  • Psychological consequences
  • Physical consequences
  • Effects of hostile environment
  • Effects of labeling experience as harassment


sexual harassment in the workplace4
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace


  • Sex-role spillover theory: In workplaces with unequal concentrations of men and women, gender is highly salient attribute. In these environments men respond to female employees more as women than as workers (Burn, 2011)
  • Power theory: Sexual harassment is seen as an abuse of power to gain sexual favors or to reinforce the imbalance of power
    • Organizational intolerance


sexual harassment in the workplace5
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

Women’s responses

  • Two category framework (Fitzgerald et al., 2001)
    • Internally focused responses
    • Externally focused responses
  • Most women do not confront perpetrator
  • Differences by ethnicity



What is it?

  • Unwanted and repeated actions toward an individual that induce fear or concern for safety
  • Perpetrators, victims, and effects
    • Most stalkers are male
    • Most victims are female
    • Can be psychologically harmful


violence against girls
Violence against Girls

Child sexual abuse: Contact and noncontact sexual experiences in which the victim is below the age of consent and the abuser is significantly older or in a position of power over the child (Barnett et al., 2005)

  • Contact sexual abuse
  • Noncontact sexual abuse
  • Exploitation through the internet
  • Incest: Sexual contact between a child and a close blood relative or other family member


violence against girls1
Violence against Girls

Child sexual abuse, continued

  • Incidence
    • Difficult to pinpoint
    • Most sexual abuse committed by family member or family friend at home, more than once
    • Most common incest between daughter and father or stepfather; brother-sister may also be very common (Rathus et al., 2010)
    • Few children tell anyone


violence against girls2
Violence against Girls

Child sexual abuse, continued

  • Consequences
    • Can be devastating in short- and long term (Cicchetti, et al., 2010)
    • Gender differences
    • Effects during childhood
    • Effects during adolescence
    • Effects during adulthood


violence against girls3
Violence against Girls

Child sexual abuse, continued

  • Treatment
    • Long process
    • Effectiveness of treatment
    • Therapy for children
  • Prevention
    • Programs offered in schools
    • Sex offender notification


violence against girls4
Violence against Girls

Infanticide and neglect

  • Result from cultural attitudes that devalue females
    • Missing girls in Asia
    • Human trafficking


dating violence
Dating Violence

Incidence of dating violence

  • Reports of physical aggression in dating relationship
  • Gender differences

Who engages in dating violence?

  • Being the recipient of dating violence (Crooks, et al., 2011)
  • Consequences and warning signals



Rape: Sexual penetration of any bodily orifice against the victim’s will, obtained by physical force, the threat of force, or while the victim is incapable of giving consent because of mental illness, mental disability, or intoxication (Crooks et al., 2011)

  • Incidence
    • A woman is raped every two minutes in the U.S. (Buddie & Miller, 2001)
    • Challenges in obtaining statistics



Rape, continued

  • Acquaintance rape: The perpetrator and the victim know each other
    • Incidence
    • Labeling the experience as rape is rare
      • Women downplay negative aspects of experience
      • Women blame themselves
    • Reporting to the police is rare



Factors associated with acquaintance rape

  • Sexual script: A socialized set of expected behaviors characterized by an aggressive male who initiates and pushes for sexual activity and a gatekeeping female who sets the limits
  • Characteristics of sexually aggressive men
    • Experienced family violence
    • Believe rape myths
  • Characteristics of victims
    • Younger, have a disability, certain ethnic groups, poor and homeless, living in warzones (Abbey et al., 2010)
  • Alcohol consumption



Effects of rape

  • Profound psychological consequences
  • Physical health consequences
  • Positive life changes following assault can help women cope



Rape prevention

  • Change attitudes
  • Increase women’s self-protection
  • Change men’s behavior (Ahrens et al., 2008)
  • Develop effective procedures for handling complaints



Theories of rape

  • Evolutionary theory: Rape evolved as strategy for men to ensure their genes would be passed on
  • Feminist theory: Rape is rooted in the longstanding and pervasive power imbalance between women and men (Bent-Goodley et al., 2011)
  • Social learning theory: Social behaviors, including attitudes supportive of rape and sexually aggressive behaviors, learned through observation and reinforcement (Sigal & Wnuk-Novitskie, 2010)


intimate partner violence
Intimate Partner Violence

Intimate partner violence, battering, domestic violence: Physical and psychological abuse committed by an intimate partner (spouse, romantic partner, or former spouse or partner)

  • Common couple violence
  • Intimate terrorism


intimate partner violence1
Intimate Partner Violence


  • Gender differences
  • Underreported

Role of disability, social class, and ethnicity

  • Disability
  • Social class
  • Ethnicity


intimate partner violence2
Intimate Partner Violence

Risk factors

  • Need for power and control
  • Belief that men have right to punish their partners
  • Alcohol and drug abuse
  • Poor communication skills, low self-esteem
  • Occupational, economic, marital stress
  • Observing or experiencing abuse in childhood


intimate partner violence3
Intimate Partner Violence

Effects of intimate partner violence

  • Physical problems
  • Psychological problems
  • Financial consequences
  • Effects on children


intimate partner violence4
Intimate Partner Violence

Leaving the abusive relationship

  • Reasons women don’t leave
    • Economic
    • Accelerated violence
    • Socialization to stay with husband
    • Conservative religious beliefs
    • Fear of deportation, discrimination


intimate partner violence5
Intimate Partner Violence

Theories of intimate partner violence

  • Feminist theory
  • Social learning theory


intimate partner violence6
Intimate Partner Violence


  • Laws
  • Shelters and transitional housing programs
  • Treatment for women’s psychological trauma
  • Treatment for batterers


elder abuse
Elder Abuse

Types of abuse

  • Physical
  • Psychological
  • Financial
  • Neglectful

Who is abused and who abuses?

What can be done?