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Ultralow temperature nanorefrigerator. Cooling. G n. Electron system. Electrical environment. Lattice. NIS junction as a refrigerator. Cooling power of a NIS junction:. Optimum cooling power is reached at V C  2 D / e :.

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ultralow temperature nanorefrigerator
Ultralow temperature nanorefrigerator








nis junction as a refrigerator
NIS junction as a refrigerator

Cooling power of a NIS junction:

Optimum cooling power is reached at VC2D/e:

Optimum cooling power per junction, when superconducting reservoirs are not overheated, TS << TC

Temperature TNon the island is determined by the balance of heat fluxes, e.g.:

(dominates at high temperatures, negligible at low temperatures)

Electron-phonon heat flux:

Efficiency (coefficient of performance) of a NIS junction refrigerator:

experimental status
Experimental status

Nahum, Eiles, Martinis 1994 Demonstration of NIS cooling

Leivo, Pekola, Averin 1996, Kuzmin 2003, Rajauria et al. 2007 Cooling electrons 300 mK -> 100 mK by SINIS

Manninen et al. 1999 Cooling by SIS’IS see also Chi and Clarke 1979 and Blamire et al. 1991, Tirelli, Giazotto et al. 2008

Manninen et al. 1997, Luukanen et al. 2000 Lattice (membrane) refrigeration by SINIS

Savin et al. 2001 S – Schottky – Semic – Schottky – S cooling

Clark et al. 2005, Miller et al. 2008 x-ray detector refrigerated by SINIS

Refrigeration of a membrane with separate thermometer

Refrigeration of a ”bulk” object

A. Clark et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173508 (2005).

A. Luukanen et al., J. Low Temp. Phys. 120, 281 (2000).

For a review, see Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 217 (2006).

specifications objectives
Specifications, objectives


Temperature reduction (electrons): 300 mK -> 50 mK

Temperature reduction (lattice): 200 mK -> 100 mK

Cooling power: 30 pW at 100 mK by one junction pair

Objectives (NanoFridge, EPSRC, Microkelvin):

Electron cooling from 300 mK -> 10 mK

Cooled platform for nanosamples: 300 mK -> 50 mK, cooling power 10 nW at 100 mK by an array of junctions

Cooler from 1.5 K down to 300 mK using higher Tc superconductor

Experiments in progress at TKK:

Thermodynamic cycles with electrons: utilizing Coulomb blockade, heat pump with P = kBT f (proposal 2007)

Refrigeration at the quantum limit (Meschke et al., Nature 2006, Timofeev et al. 2009, unpublished)

Brownian refrigerator, Maxwell’s demon (proposal 2007)

Cooling mechanical modes in suspended structures, i.e., nanomechanics combined with electronic refrigeration (Preliminary experiment, Muhonen et al. and Koppinen et al. 2009)

jra2 ultralow temperature nanorefrigerator tkk cnrs rhul sns basel delft
JRA2Ultralow temperature nanorefrigeratorTKK, CNRS, RHUL, SNS, BASEL, DELFT


Thermalizing and filtering electrons in nanodevices

To develop an electronic nano-refrigerator that is able to reach sub-10 mK electronic temperatures

To develop an electronic microrefrigerator for cooling galvanically isolated nanosamples

roles of the participants
Roles of the participants

TKK and CNRS will develop the nanorefrigeration by superconducting tunnel junctions

SNS will build coolers based on semiconducting electron gas

BASEL will work mainly on very low temperature thermalization and filtering DELFT and RHUL are mainly end users of the nano-coolers


Task 1: Thermalizing electrons in nanorefrigerators (TKK, CNRS, BASEL)

Ex-chip filtering:

Sintered heat exchangers in a 3He cell

Lossy coaxes/strip lines, powder filters, ...

On-chip filtering:

Lithographic resistive lines


W. Pan et al., PRL 83, 3530 (1999)

A. Savin et al., APL 91, 063512 2007

task 2 microkelvin nanocooler tkk cnrs sns
Task 2: Microkelvin nanocooler (TKK, CNRS, SNS)

Aim is to develop sub - 10 mK electronic cooler

Normal metal – superconductor tunnel junctions-based optimized coolers (TKK, CNRS, DELFT)

10 mK to lower T:

Improved quality of tunnel junctions

Thermometry at low T?

Lower Tc superconductor

Quasiparticle relaxation studies in sc and trapping of qp:s

Quantum dot cooler (SNS)

thermometry at low t
Thermometry at low T

SNS Josephson junction

Task 3: Development of a 100 mK, robust, electronically-cooled platform based on a 300 mK 3He bath (TKK, CNRS, RHUL, DELFT)

Commercial, robust SiN membranes (and custom made alumina) as platforms (TKK)

Epitaxial large area junctions (CNRS)

Optimized junctions (e-beam and mechanical masks)

RHUL and DELFT use these coolers for experiments on quantum devices


Task 1

D1: Analysis of combined ex-chip and on-chip filter performance (18)

D2: Demonstration of sub-10 mK electronic bath temperature of a nano-electronic tunnel junction device achieved by the developed filtering strategy (30)

Task 2

D3: Analysis of sub-10 mK nano-cooling techniques including (i) traditional N-I-S cooler with low Tc, (ii) quantum dot cooler (24)

D4: Demonstration of sub-10 mK nanocooling with a N-I-S junction (48)

Task 3

D5: Demonstration of 300 mK to about 50 mK cooling of a dielectric platform (36)

D6: Demonstration of cooling-based improved sensitivity of a quantum detector (48)