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The Nile River Valley. Settling the Nile. Earliest Egyptians move into the Nile River Valley from less fertile areas. They farmed and built villages along the riverbanks. ______________ – longest river in the world (4,000 miles) Used it for water, farming, bathing and fishing

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The Nile River Valley

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settling the nile
Settling the Nile
  • Earliest Egyptians move into the Nile River Valley from less fertile areas. They farmed and built villages along the riverbanks.
  • ______________– longest river in the world (4,000 miles)
    • Used it for water, farming, bathing and fishing
    • Narrow green valley in Egypt.
    • Nile Delta, fertile area at end of river
settling the nile continued
Settling the Nile continued
  • The ____________, the largest desert in the world, lies west of the Nile Valley
  • Egypt had several natural borders to protect them
    • West – Sahara desert
    • East – Eastern desert
    • South – dangerous rapids
    • North – Mediterranean Sea
the river people
The River People
  • Floods along Nile River predictable. Left behind dark fertile soil along its banks.
  • Farmer grew wheat, barley and flax seeds.
  • Irrigation canals
  • _____________, a reed plant that grew along the Nile, was used to make baskets, sandals, and paper.
  • __________________ – Egyptian system of writing consisting of thousands of picture symbols.
  • Some Egyptian men learned to read and write – attended schools to become scribes.
the united egypt
The United Egypt
  • Since the people of Egypt had a surplus of food, some people became artisans instead of farmers.
  • Egyptians traded with each other and with others in Mesopotamia
  • Strong chiefs united villages into kingdoms. Eventually, stronger kingdoms overpowered weaker ones.
    • Two Kingdoms emerged:
      • Lower Egypt
      • Upper Egypt
  • _________ –united the two kingdoms and ruled from the city of Memphis.
  • His descendants passed the ruling power from father to son to grandson, forming a _________________.
Ancient Egypt was ruled by 31 dynasties that historians have grouped into three time periods: ____________, _______________, ___________________
early egyptian life
Early Egyptian Life

Social Class Division

Upper Class

Middle Class

Lower Class

  • _____________ had more rights in Egypt than in any other ancient civilizations
  • Women could own property, buy and sell goods, make wills, obtain divorces.
  • Few children went to school in ancient Egypt
  • Egyptian girls learned how sew, cook, and run a household. Boys learned to farm or a skilled trade.
egypt s old kingdom

Ch.2 Sec.2

Egypt’s Old Kingdom

Old Kingdom Rulers

  • The Old Kingdom lasted from about 2600 B.C. until about 2300 B.C.
  • _____________ were all-powerful Egyptian kings who guided every activity in Egypt.
  • Pharaohs appointed officials to carry out their commands
  • Pharaohs were the son of ____, the sun god. They thought pharaohs were gods on earth.
egypt s religion
Egypt’s Religion
  • Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses, or ______. These deities controlled every human activity and all natural forces.
  • ____ – sun god; _______– god of the Nile River; ______ – god of fertility
  • Egyptians believed in life after death. The Book of the Dead contained a collection of spells that Egyptians believed they needed to enter the afterlife.
the afterlife
The Afterlife
  • Egyptians believed in the afterlife, or life after death.
  • Humans as well as some animals had to be prepared for the afterlife
  • ____________________ – The process of removing organs and treating the body with chemicals for preservation.
  • Jewelry, tools, weapons, figures, etc. would be place in the tomb so they could use it in the “next” life.
  • The soul of the person deceased would be weighed against the sacred feather, symbol for truth.
  • _______________ process

Solar calendar – “________” – star that appeared before the annual flood

Science, Math, and Medicine

  • Developed number system based on “____” – Decimal System today
  • Diagnosed diseases; created remedies for cures; set broken bones, wrote the 1st medical book
the great pyramids
The Great Pyramids
  • Egyptians built ___________ to protect the bodies of dead pharaohs.
  • Pyramids to thousands of people and years of work to complete
  • They used astronomy and mathematics to create pyramids.
  • While studying the sky, Egyptians developed the 365 day calendar that we use today.
  • The Great Pyramid is the largest pyramid in Egypt. It was built for King Khufu and it is located near Cairo.
egyptian tombs
Egyptian Tombs

Valley of the Kings

the middle kingdom
The Middle Kingdom
  • Pharaohs lost control of Egypt in about 2300 B.C. A new dynasty of pharaohs created a capital at _________. This began the Middle Kingdom.
  • A time of stability, prosperity and achievement
  • Arts, literature and architecture blossomed.
  • Middle Kingdom ended when the ________ attacked and conquered Egypt.
  • Egyptian prince _________ led a revolt to drive the Hyksos out of Egypt
the new kingdom
The New Kingdom
  • Egypt grew richer and more powerful.
  • _______________was one of the few women rulers.
  • Trade grew during her rule. Beads, tools, wood, ivory and incense were traded.
  • _________________became pharaoh after Hatshepsut died. Egypt conquered more land and became even richer.
  • Slavery was very common. They did have some rights: could own land, marry, and eventually gain freedom
legacy of two pharaohs
Legacy of Two Pharaohs
  • Amenhotep IV (___________ ) came to power in 1370 B.C.
  • He felt priest were gaining too much power. He introduced a new religion with one god. Priests who do not follow were removed from power.
  • Most refused to follow new religion.
  • Hittites invaded and greatly reduced their power.
  • _____________, a.k.a. King Tut, ruled for only 9 years – “Boy King”
    • Took power after Akhenaton died

Treasures of Tutankhamen (8 min)

Discovered by British Archaeologist Howard Carter

Died at 20 years of age


the end of the new kingdom
The End of the New Kingdom
  • _______________was one of the most powerful rulers of all of Egypt.
  • Under his rule, many temples were built
  • After Ramses II died, Egyptian influence began to decline.
  • Egypt was attacked by neighboring groups – Libyans, Kush and finally the Assyrians
the civilization of kush
The Civilization of Kush
  • Region of ________, later known as Kush, was located south of Egypt on the Nile River
  • The 1st people to arrive in Nubia were cattle herders who grazed on the _____________.
  • More powerful Nubian villages took control of weaker ones, and the kingdom of __________ was created.
  • Egypt invaded Kerma, eventually taking it over.
the rise of kush
The Rise of Kush
  • Nubians broke away from Egypt and formed their own kingdom called __________.
  • Ruled from the city of Napata, which was located on the upper Nile River.
  • A king named __________ and his son, Piye conquered Egypt in 728 B.C.
  • The __________ later invaded Egypt and forced out the Kushites.
  • Kusk moved their ruling city south to the city of Meroe – important iron working city (learned from the Assyrians)
  • The kingdom of _______ overthrew Kush and burned it to the ground.