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Service Provision Assessment (SPA) and Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) Surveys Shouldn’t they be Merged? Presentation Prepared by Moses Busiga (USAID) and Waly Wane (World Bank) Tanzania DPG Health – November 14, 2012. What are SPA Surveys?.

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Service Provision Assessment (SPA) and Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) Surveys Shouldn’t they be Merged?Presentation Prepared by Moses Busiga (USAID) and Waly Wane (World Bank)Tanzania DPG Health – November 14, 2012

what are spa surveys
What are SPA Surveys?
  • Sample survey of formal sector health facilities
  • Provide information about the overall service environment and functioning of components of the health system that may affect the quality of services
  • Objective: to provide a “snap-shot” of the service environment, resources, and practices used to provide health services in formal sector health facilities
what questions can a spa survey answer
What questions can a SPA survey answer?
  • What is the overall availability of different health services?
    • e.g., what proportion of facilities offer child health services? family planning services?
  • To what extent are facilities prepared to provide these services?
    • What infrastructure, resources and support systems are available, e.g., regular electricity and water supply, trained staff, items for infection control, visual and auditory privacy, service guidelines, management practices,
  • To what extent does the service delivery process follow generally accepted standards of care?
    • Does the process followed in service delivery meet standards of acceptable quality and content?
  • Are clients and service providers satisfied with the service delivery environment?
    • Clients’ perception of service provided and providers’ satisfaction with the work environment
what are the contents of spa surveys
What are the contents of SPA surveys?
  • Systems
  • Guidelines & protocols
  • Referral systems
  • Staff training and supervision
  • Services
    • Maternal & Child Health
      • ANC, Delivery, Newborn care
      • Vaccination services
      • Curative care for children under 5
      • Growth monitoring for children
      • Family planning (FP) services
    • HIV / AIDS
      • CT
      • ART
      • PMTCT
    • Tuberculosis (TB)
    • Malaria
    • STI
    • Non-Communicable Diseases
  • Infrastructure
  • Water
  • Electricity
  • Client latrine
  • Items for infection control
  • Infection control practices
  • Privacy
  • Resources
    • Laboratory Diagnostics
    • Equipment
    • Pharmaceuticals
standard spa questionnaires
Standard SPA Questionnaires
  • Inventory questionnaire
      • General information: staffing levels, health care waste management, processing of equipment, methods of eliciting client opinion,
      • Availability of services (child health services, FP, ANC, Delivery, HIV testing, STI, TB..) and frequency (i.e., # of day/week service is offered)
      • Detailed information pertaining to the service, if offered: equipment, guidelines
      • Laboratory diagnostics services: availability of different tests, systems for external testing, QC
      • Medicine and supplies
  • Health provider questionnaire
      • Provider qualifications, services provided, training, continuous education
      • Supervision
      • Perception of the work environment
  • Observation protocol
      • Observation of consultations and examinations of sick children, ANC, and family planning sessions, STI, etc.
      • Checklists cover basic elements of service delivery; special studies needed for more info
  • Client exit interview questionnaire
      • With clients who were observed receiving services to elicit their perception on consultation and service received
sdi perspective
SDI Perspective
  • Perspective adopted by SDI is that of citizens accessing services
  • Can be viewed as a service delivery report card
  • However, instead of using citizens’ perceptions, assemble objective and quantitative information from a survey of frontline service delivery units
  • Uses modules from:
    • Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS),
    • Quantitative Service Delivery Survey (QSDS),
    • Staff Absence Survey (SAS)
    • Observational studies.

Sample size and design


Designed to provide representative estimates for each of the key Indicators, broken down by urban and rural location.

Stratified multi-stage random sampling design, with number of units proportional to population

Given resources available, 180 facilities to be surveyed in each sector

Sample frames: most recent list of all public primary schools and public health facilities, including information on size of population they serve.

medical personnel effort and knowledge
Medical personnel: Effort and knowledge
  • Absence rate
  • Time spent counseling patients per clinician
  • Diagnostic accuracy in outpatient consultations
time spent counseling patients per clinician
Time spent counseling patients per clinician


Use data on time spent per patient (from the observational study)

Multiply by total number of patients treated per day

Divide by number of clinicians (on the roster)

diagnostic accuracy in outpatient consultations
Diagnostic accuracy in outpatient consultations


Share of clinicians who reached correct diagnosis based on patient case simulations (“vignettes”)

what do patient case simulations measure
What do Patient Case Simulations measure?


(performance frontier)


Performance with

real patients



  • At the Clinic
  • Clinics with electricity, water, sanitation
  • Clinics with basic equipment[3]
  • Medical Personnel
  • Health workers absent on a given day
  • Time spent counseling patients per day
  • Cases diagnosed accurately by clinicians[4]
  • Funding
  • Expenditure reaching primary clinics per capita
  • Medical personnel experience a 2-month+ delay in salary








what s next for spa sdi in tz
What’s Next for SPA & SDI in TZ?
  • Already had a brainstorming session on how to merge SPA and SDI
    • Merging SPA and SDI has many advantages
  • SDI will participate in upcoming SPA stakeholder meeting in December
  • Both SDI and SPA teams are open to alter their timelines to consider and work on the merge
  • Tentatively the “merged” survey could start field operations before June 2013