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Chpt. 19: Genetic Engineering. What is genetic engineering??? Genetic engineering: is the artificial manipulation or alteration of genes. Genetic Engineering involves: removing a gene (target gene) from one organism inserting target gene into DNA of another organism

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Chpt. 19: Genetic Engineering


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Chpt. 19:

Genetic Engineering

slide2

What is genetic engineering???

  • Genetic engineering:is the artificial manipulation or alteration of genes.
  • Genetic Engineering involves:
    • removing a gene (target gene) from one organism
    • inserting target gene into DNA of another organism
    • ‘cut and paste’ process.
slide3

Some important terms!!!

Recombinant DNA: the altered DNA is called recombinant DNA ( recombines after small section of DNA inserted into it).

Genetically Modified Organism (GMO): is the organism with the altered DNA.

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Genetic Engineering breaks the species barrier!!!

  • Genetic engineering allows DNA from different species to be joined together.
  • This often results in combinations of DNA that would never be possible in nature!!! For this reason genetic engineering is not a natural process.
  • If DNA is transferred from one species to another the organism that receives the DNA is said to be transgenic.
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Genetic engineering breaks the species barrier!!!

  • Examples of cross-species transfer of genes:
  • - a human gene inserted into a bacterium
  • - a human gene inserted into another animal
  • - a bacterial gene placed in a plant
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Alternative names for genetic engineering:

  • Genetic Manipulation
  • Genetic Modification
  • Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Gene Splicing
  • Gene Cloning
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Tools used in genetic engineering!!!

  • Source of DNA: Target (foreign) DNA – DNA taken from one organism to be placed into the DNA of a second organism.
  • A cloning vector: Special kind of DNA that can accept foreign DNA and exactly reproduce itself and the foreign DNA e.g. Bacterial plasmid (loop of DNA found in bacteria).
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Tools Used in Genetic Engineering

Restriction Enzymes:

  • - are special enzymes usedto cut the DNA at specific places.
  • - different enzymes cut DNA at specificbase sequences known as a recognition site. For example
    • i) One restriction enzyme will always cut DNA at
    • the base sequence: GAATTC.
    • ii) Another restriction enzyme only cuts at the
  • sequence: GATC.
  • - If DNA from two different organisms is cut with the same restriction enzyme the cut ends from both sources will be complementary and can easily stick together.
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Tools used in Genetic Engineering

  • DNA Ligase: enzyme which acts like a glue sticking foreign DNA to DNA of the cloning vector.
  • will only work if DNA from the two DNA sources has been cut with the same restriction enzyme i.e. sticky ends of cut DNA will be complementary to each other.
  • Please note diagram illustrating use of restriction enzymes and DNA Ligase in production of recombinant DNA Fig. 19.6 pg. 195
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Process of Genetic Engineering

  • Five steps involved in this process:
    • Isolation
    • Cutting
    • Insertion (Ligation)
    • Transformation
    • Expression
  • Note: The following example will explain how a human gene is inserted into a bacterium so that the bacterium can produce human insulin.
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Process of Genetic Engineering

  • Isolation:
    • Removal of human DNA (containing target gene).
    • Removal of plasmid (bacterial DNA) from bacterium.
  • Cutting:
    • Both human DNA and plasmid DNA are cut with the same restriction enzyme.
    • Normally plasmid has only one restriction site while human DNA will have many restriction sites.
    • Please note diagram 19.7 pg. 196
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Process of Genetic Engineering

  • Insertion:
    • means that target gene is placed into the DNA of the plasmid or cloning vector.
    • cut plasmids are mixed with human DNA sections allowing the cut ends to combine.
  • Transformation
  • Expression
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Applications of Genetic Engineering

  • You must know three applications: one involving a plant, one animal and one for a micro-organism.
  • Plants: Weed killer-resistant crops
    • many types of crop plants have bacterial genes added to them.
    • these genes make the plants resistant to certain weed killers (herbicides).
    • this means that the weed killers kill the weeds but do not affect the transgenic plants.
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Applications of Genetic Engineering

Animals:

There is a growing trend to experiment with inserting human genes into the DNA of other mammals. The transgenic animals formed in this way will then produce a human protein and secrete it into their milk or even into their eggs.

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Applications of Genetic Engineering

  • Animals: Sheep produce human clotting factor
    • A human gene has been inserted into the DNA of sheep.
    • This allows the adult sheep to produce a clotting chemical needed by haemophiliacs to clot their blood – produced in the milk of the sheep.
  • Pharming: is the production of pharmaceuticals by genetically modified animals i.e. sheep, cows, goats etc.
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Applications of Genetic Engineering

  • Micro-organisms: Bacteria make insulin
    • The human insulin gene has been inserted into a bacterium (E-coli).
    • This allows the bacterium to produce insulin for use by diabetics.
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Ethical Issues in genetic engineering

  • The release of GMO’s into the environment:
    • Danger of possibility of GMO’s being released into the environment.
    • GMO’s grown in bioreactors do not provoke as much fear.
    • GMO’s grown outdoors - fears of foreign genes they contain being spread to other plants.
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Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering

  • GMO’s as a food source:
  • Outlined below are some fears associated with the use of GMO’s as a food source:
    • Cannibalism:
    • – eating an animal containing a human gene is a form of cannibalism.
    • - feeding GMO’s containing human genes to animals that would later be eaten by humans.
    • Religious reasons: – eating pig genes that are inserted into sheep would be offensive to Jews and Muslims.
    • Offensive to vegetarians/vegans: – eating animal genes contained in food plants cause concern.
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Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering

  • Animal Welfare:
    • There is serious concern that animals will suffer as a result of being genetically modified.
    • use of growth hormones may cause limb deformation and arthritis as animals grow.
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Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering

  • Genetic Engineering in Humans:
  • The following issues are a cause for concern:
    • If tests are carried out for genetic diseases, who is entitled to see the results?
    • Tests on unborn babies – could this lead to abortion if a disease is shown to be present?
    • Insurance/lending companies – will they insist on genetic tests before they will insure/lend money to a person?
    • Need for legal controls over the uses to which human cells can be put.
    • Development and expansion of eugenics.