19. Organization of the Body. Learning Outcomes. 19.1 Describe body organization from simple to more complex levels. 19.2 List the body organ systems, their general functions, and the major organs contained in each. 19.3 Define the anatomical position and explain its importance.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Organization of the Body
19.1 Describe body organization from simple to more complex levels.
19.2 List the body organ systems, their general functions, and the major organs contained in each.
19.3 Define the anatomical position and explain its importance.
19.4 Use medical and anatomical terminology correctly.
19.5 Name the body cavities and the organs contained in each.
19.6 Explain the abdominal regions and quadrants.
19.7 Explain why a basic understanding of chemistry is important in studying the body.
19.8 Describe important molecules and compounds of the human body.
19.9 Label the parts of a cell and list their functions.
19.10 List and describe the ways substances move across a cell membrane.
19.11 Describe the stages of cell division.
19.12 Explain how mutations occur and what effects they may produce.
19.13 Describe the uses of the genetic techniques, DNA fingerprinting, and the polymerase chain reaction.
19.14 Describe the different patterns of inheritance.
19.15 Describe the locations and characteristics of the four main tissue types.
19.16 Describe the signs and symptoms of various genetic conditions.
The body is organized from the chemical level all the way up to the organ system levelIntroduction
You will also learn important terminology used in the clinical setting to describe body positions and parts.
True or False:
___ Anatomy is the study of structure.
___ Physiology is the study of function and structure.
___ Homeostasis is the relative consistency of the body’s internal environment.
Physiology is the study of function.
Levels of Organization
1. Match the following:
___ Atoms A. The smallest living units in the body
___ Matter B. Anything that takes up space and has weight
___ Molecules C. Simplest unit of matter
___ Organelles D. Same type of cells organized together
___ Cells E. Molecules joined together
___ Tissues F. Combination of two or more tissue types
___ Organs G. Atoms that bond together
2. What is the difference between organs and organ systems?
3. List two major components of the cardiovascular system.
ANSWER: Organs are made of tissues working together to carry out a specific function and an organ system is formed when organs work together to carry out vital functions.
The heart and blood vessels
Anatomical position – body is standing upright, facing forward, with the arms at the sides and palms of hands facing forward
Used to identify the position of body structures compared to other body surfacesAnatomical Terminology
2. What is the anatomical position?
ANSWER: Anatomical position is the body standing upright, facing forward, with the arms at the sides and palms of hands facing forward.
What are the two largest body cavities?
ANSWER: Dorsal and ventral cavities
Two or more atoms chemically combine
Basic unit of compounds
Two or more atoms of more than one element combine
Water is an example of a compound
2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom
Critical to both chemical and physical processes in human physiology
About 2/3 of your body weight.Chemistry of Life (cont.)
Designate an A or a B to indicate whether the item is an acid or a base.
____ Lemon juice ____ Gastric fluid
____ Sodium bicarbonate ____ Egg white
____ Household ammonia ____ Vinegar
What are the three main parts of a cell, and in which one is DNA found?
ANSWER: The three main parts of a cell are:
What are mitosis, meiosis, and interphase?
Mitosis is a part of cell division in which the nucleus divides.
Meiosis is reproductive cell division requiring both female and male sex cells.
During interphase, the cell carries out normal function and is not dividing.
Designate whether the following is related to PCR (polymerase chain reaction ) or F (DNA fingerprinting).
____ Unique sequences of nucleotides in a person’s DNA
____ Reliable method for identifying and distinguishing among humans
____ Used in the study of genetics
____ Used in criminal and paternity cases
____ Necessary tool for improving human health
What is cystic fibrosis?
ANSWER: Cystic fibrosis is a life-threatening genetic disorder that affects the lungs and pancreas.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer
What are the major tissue types?
19.1 The body organization levels, simplest to most complex, are chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism.
19.2 The body organ systems include integumentary, skeletal, muscular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive systems, each with their particular set of organs and vessels to function in the capacities outlined within the chapter.
19.3 In anatomic position, the body is erect, facing forward with arms at the sides and palms facing forward.
19.5 The dorsal cavity consists of the cranial cavity, which contains the brain and spinal cavity containing the spinal cord. The ventral cavity is composed of the thoracic and abdominal cavities, and below the abdominal cavity is the pelvic cavity. The body’s organs are contained within these cavities.In Summary (cont.)
19.6 The abdominal area may be divided into nine regions: right and left hypochondriac, epigastric, right and left lumbar, umbilical, right and left iliac (inguinal), and hypogastric regions. The abdomen may also be divided into right and left upper quadrants and right and left lower quadrants.
19.7 It is important to have a basic understanding of chemistry when studying anatomy and physiology because body structures and functions result from chemical processes that occur within body cells or fluids.
19.8 Proteins and carbohydrates are examples of two important molecules that make up the human body. Water is an example of a compound that is important to the human body.
19.9 The main components of a cell are as follows: Cell membrane, cilia, flagella may be present, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and centrioles. Each has its own specialized function in the life of a cell.
19.10 Substances use both active and passive mechanisms to transport substances across the cell membrane. Passive mechanisms include diffusion, osmosis, and filtration. Active transport uses carrier molecules.
19.11 A cell at rest is said to be in interphase. Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase occur during mitosis. Reproductive cell division is known as meiosis and takes place only in the reproductive cells.
19.12 Errors in DNA duplication during cell division are known as mutations.
19.13 Genetic techniques allow the identification of individuals through the unique sequences of nucleotides found within DNA. Polymerase chain reactions allow millions of copies from just a fragment of DNA. DNA fingerprinting is used in paternity testing and in identifying suspects in criminal cases.
19.14 Dominant traits occur through alleles. If a dominant allele is received from a parent, the trait will appear in the child. Complex inheritance is more common and is determined by multiple genes given by both parents. Sex-linked traits are carried on the sex chromosomes.
19.16 Various types of genetic disorders affect humans. Some of them include albinism, cystic fibrosis, Down syndrome, hemophilia, muscular dystrophy and PKU.In Summary (cont.)
Our history begins before we are born. We represent the hereditary influences of our race, and our ancestors virtually live in us.
~ James Nasmyth