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Network+ Guide to Networks 5 th Edition. Chapter 4 Introduction to TCP/IP Protocols. Objectives. Identify and explain the functions of the core TCP/IP protocols Explain how the TCP/IP protocols correlate to layers of the OSI model

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Network+ Guide to Networks5th Edition

Chapter 4

Introduction to TCP/IP Protocols


Objectives l.jpg
Objectives

  • Identify and explain the functions of the core TCP/IP protocols

  • Explain how the TCP/IP protocols correlate to layers of the OSI model

  • Discuss addressing schemes for TCP/IP in IPv4 and IPv6 protocols

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Objectives (cont’d.)

  • Describe the purpose and implementation of DNS (Domain Name System) and DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

  • Identify the well-known ports for key TCP/IP services

  • Describe common Application layer TCP/IP protocols

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Characteristics of TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol)

  • Protocol Suite

    • “IP” or “TCP/IP”

    • Subprotocols

      • TCP, IP, UDP, ARP

  • Developed by Department of Defense

    • ARPANET (1960s)

      • Internet precursor

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Characteristics of TCP/IP (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Popularity

    • Low cost

    • Communicates between dissimilar platforms

    • Open nature

    • Routable

      • Spans more than one LAN (LAN segment)

    • Flexible

      • Runs on combinations of network operating systems or network media

      • Disadvantage: requires more configuration

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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The TCP/IP Core Protocols Internet Protocol)

  • TCP/IP suite subprotocols

  • Operates in Transport or Network layers of OSI model

  • Provide basic services to protocols in other layers

  • Most significant protocols in TCP/IP

    • TCP

    • IP

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) Internet Protocol)

  • Transport layer protocol

  • Provides reliable data delivery services

    • Connection-oriented subprotocol

      • Establish connection before transmitting

    • Sequencing and checksums

    • Flow control

      • Data does not flood node

  • TCP segment format

    • Encapsulated by IP datagram in Network layer

      • Becomes IP datagram’s “data”

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-1 A TCP segment Internet Protocol)

TCP (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-2 TCP segment data Internet Protocol)

TCP (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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TCP (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Three segments establish connection

  • Computer A issues message to Computer B

    • Sends segment

      • SYN field: Random synchronize sequence number

  • Computer B receives message

    • Sends segment

      • ACK field: sequence number Computer A sent plus 1

      • SYN field: Computer B random number

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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TCP (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Computer A responds

    • Sends segment

      • ACK field: sequence number Computer B sent plus 1

      • SYN field: Computer B random number

  • FIN flag indicates transmission end

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-3 Establishing a TCP connection Internet Protocol)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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UDP (User Datagram Protocol) Internet Protocol)

  • Transport layer protocol

  • Provides unreliable data delivery services

    • Connectionless transport service

      • No assurance packets received in correct sequence

      • No guarantee packets received at all

      • No error checking, sequencing

    • Lacks sophistication

      • More efficient than TCP

  • Useful situations

    • Great volume of data transferred quickly

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-4 A UDP segment Internet Protocol)

UDP (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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IP (Internet Protocol) Internet Protocol)

  • Network layer protocol

    • How and where data delivered, including:

      • Data’s source and destination addresses

  • Enables TCP/IP to internetwork

    • Traverse more than one LAN segment

      • More than one network type through router

  • Network layer data formed into packets

    • IP datagram

      • Data envelope

      • Contains information for routers to transfer data between different LAN segments

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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IP (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Unreliable, connectionless protocol

    • No guaranteed data delivery

  • IP used by higher level protocols

    • Ensure data packets delivered to correct addresses

  • Reliability component

    • Header checksum

      • Verifies routing information integrity in IP header

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-5 An IP datagram Internet Protocol)

IP (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-6 IP datagram data Internet Protocol)

IP (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) Internet Protocol)

  • Network layer protocol

    • Reports on data delivery success/failure

  • Announces transmission failures to sender

    • Network congestion

    • Data fails to reach destination

    • Data discarded: TTL expired

  • ICMP cannot correct errors

    • Provides critical network problem troubleshooting information

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) Internet Protocol)

  • Network layer protocol

  • Manages multicasting

    • Allows one node to send data to defined group of nodes

      • Similar to broadcast transmission

  • Point-to-multipoint method

  • Uses

    • Internet teleconferencing, videoconferencing, routers, network nodes

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Internet Protocol)

  • Network layer protocol

  • Obtains host (node) MAC (physical) address

    • Creates database

    • Maps MAC address to host’s IP (logical) address

  • ARP table (ARP cache)

    • Database on computers hard disk

      • Contains recognized MAC-to-IP address mappings

    • Increases efficiency

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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ARP (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Two entry types

    • Dynamic

      • Created when client makes ARP request that cannot be satisfied by data in ARP table

    • Static

      • Entries entered manually using ARP utility

  • ARP utility

    • Accessed via the arp command

      • Windows command prompt, UNIX, or Linux shell prompt

    • Provides ARP table information

    • Provides way to manipulate device’s ARP table

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-7 Example ARP table Internet Protocol)

ARP (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) Internet Protocol)

  • Problem: cannot use ARP

    • If device does not know its own IP address

  • Solution: RARP

    • Client sends broadcast message with MAC address

      • Receives IP address in reply

  • RARP server maintains table

    • Contains MAC addresses, associated IP addresses

  • RARP originally developed diskless workstations

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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IPv4 Addressing Internet Protocol)

  • Networks recognize two addresses

    • Logical (Network layer)

    • Physical (MAC, hardware) addresses

  • IP protocol handles logical addressing

  • Specific parameters

    • Unique 32-bit number

      • Divided into four octets (sets of eight bits)

      • Separated by periods

  • Example: 144.92.43.178

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Table 4-1 Commonly used TCP/IP classes Internet Protocol)

IPv4 Addressing (cont’d.)

  • IP address information

    • Network Class determined by first octet

      • Class A, Class B, Class C

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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IPv4 Addressing (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Class D, Class E rarely used (never assign)

    • Class D: value between 224 and 230

      • Multicasting

    • Class E: value between 240 and 254

      • Experimental use

  • Eight bits have 256 combinations

    • Networks use 1 through 254

    • 0: reserved as placeholder

      • 10.0.0.0

    • 255: reserved for broadcast transmission

      • 255.255.255.255

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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IPv4 Addressing (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Class A devices

    • Share same first octet (bits 0-7)

      • Network ID

    • Host: second through fourth octets (bits 8-31)

  • Class B devices

    • Share same first two octet (bits 0-15)

    • Host: second through fourth octets (bits 16-31)

  • Class C devices

    • Share same first three octet (bits 0-23)

    • Host: second through fourth octets (bits 24-31)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-8 IP addresses and their classes Internet Protocol)

  • Running out of addresses

    • IPv6 incorporates new addressing scheme

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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IPv4 Addressing (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Loop back address

    • First octet equals 127 (127.0.0.1)

  • Loopback test

    • Attempting to connect to own machine

    • Powerful troubleshooting tool

  • Windows XP, Vista

    • ipconfig command

  • Unix, Linux

    • ifconfig command

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-9 Results of the Internet Protocol)ipconfig /all command on a Windows XP or Windows Vista workstation

IPv4 Addressing (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-10 Results of the Internet Protocol)ifconfig -a command on a UNIX workstation

IPv4 Addressing (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Binary and Dotted Decimal Notation Internet Protocol)

  • Decimal number between 0 and 255 represents each binary octet

  • Period (dot) separates each decimal

  • Dotted decimal address has binary equivalent

    • Converting each octet

    • Remove decimal points

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Subnet Mask Internet Protocol)

  • Identifies every device on TCP/IP-based network

  • 32-bit number (net mask)

    • Identifies device’s subnet

      • Combines with device IP address

      • Informs network about segment, network where device attached

  • Four octets (32 bits)

    • Expressed in binary or dotted decimal notation

  • Assigned same way a IP addresses

    • Manually, automatically (via DHCP)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Table 4-2 Default subnet masks Internet Protocol)

  • Subnetting

    • Subdividing network single class into multiple, smaller logical networks (segments)

      • Control network traffic

      • Make best use of limited number of IP addresses

    • Subnet mask varies depending on subnetting

  • Nonsubnetted networks use defaults

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Assigning IP Addresses Internet Protocol)

  • Government-sponsored organizations

    • Dole out IP addresses

    • IANA, ICANN, RIRs

  • Companies, individuals

    • Obtain IP addresses from ISPs

  • Every network node must have unique IP address

    • Error message otherwise

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Assigning IP Addresses (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Static IP address

    • Assignment manually

    • Modify client workstation TCP/IP properties

      • Only way to change

    • Human error cause duplicates

  • Automatic IP addressing

    • BOOTP and DHCP

    • Reduce duplication error

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) Internet Protocol)

  • Mid-1980s

  • Application layer protocol

  • Central list

    • IP addresses, associated devices’ MAC addresses

    • Assign client IP addresses dynamically

  • Dynamic IP address

    • Assigned to device upon request

    • Changeable

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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BOOTP (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • BOOTP process

    • Client connects to network

    • Sends broadcast message asking for IP address

      • Includes client’s NIC MAC address

    • BOOTP server looks up client’s MAC address in BOOTP table

    • Responds to client

      • Client’s IP address

      • Server IP address

      • Server host name

      • Default router IP address

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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BOOTP (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Process resembles RARP

    • Difference

      • RARP requests, responses not routable

      • RARP only capable of issuing IP address to client

      • BOOTP may issue additional information (client’s subnet mask)

  • BOOTP surpassed by DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

    • More sophisticated IP addressing utility

    • DHCP requires little intervention

      • BOOTP difficult to maintain on large networks

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Internet Protocol)

  • Assigns network device unique IP address

    • Automatically

  • Application layer protocol

  • Developed by IETF (BOOTP replacement)

  • Operation

    • Similar to BOOTP

    • Lower administrative burden

      • Administrator does not maintain table

    • Requires DHCP service on DHCP server

  • Many reasons to use

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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DHCP Leasing Process Internet Protocol)

  • Device borrows (leases) IP address

    • Devices use IP address temporarily

      • Specified time limit

  • Lease time

    • Determine when client obtains IP address at log on

    • User may force lease termination

  • DHCP service configuration

    • Specify leased address range

    • Configure lease duration

  • Several steps to negotiate client’s first lease

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-11 The DHCP leasing process Internet Protocol)

DHCP Leasing Process (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Terminating a DHCP Lease Internet Protocol)

  • Lease expiration

    • Automatic

      • Established in server configuration

    • Manually terminated at any time

      • Client’s TCP/IP configuration

      • Server’s DHCP configuration

  • Circumstances requiring lease termination

    • DHCP server fails and replaced

      • Windows: release of TCP/IP settings

  • DHCP services run on several server types

    • Installation and configurations vary

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing) Internet Protocol)

  • Client cannot communicate without valid IP address

  • What if DHCP server not running?

    • Microsoft offers Automatic Private IP Addressing

      • Windows 98, Me, 2000, XP, Vista, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008

      • Provides IP address automatically

  • IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) reserved predefined pool of addresses

    • 169.254.0.0 through 169.254.255.255

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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APIPA (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • APIPA

    • Assigns computer’s network adapter IP address from the pool

    • Assigns subnet default Class B network

      • 255.255.0.0

    • Part of operating system

      • No need to register; check with central authority

  • Disadvantage

    • Computer only communicates with other nodes using addresses in APIPA range

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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APIPA (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • APIPA suitable use

    • Small networks: no DHCP servers

  • APIPA unsuitable use

    • Networks communicating with other subnets, WAN

  • APIPA enabled by default: OK

    • First checks for DHCP server

      • Allows DHCP server to assign addresses

    • Does not reassign new address if static

    • Works with DHCP clients

    • Disabled in registry

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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IPv6 Addressing Internet Protocol)

  • IP next generation (IPng)

    • Replacing IPv4 (gradually)

  • IPv6 support

    • Most new applications, servers, network devices

  • Delay in implementation

    • Cost of upgrading infrastructure

  • IPv6 advantages

    • More efficient header, better security, better prioritization provisions, automatic IP address configuration

    • Billions of additional IP addresses

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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IPv6 Addressing (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Difference between IPv4 and IPv6 addresses

    • Size

      • IPv4: 32 bits

      • IPv6: eight 16-bit fields (128 bits)

      • IPv6: 296 (4 billion times 4 billion times 4 billion) available IP addresses

    • Representation

      • IPv4: binary numbers separated by period

      • IPv6: hexadecimal numbers separated by colon

      • IPv6 shorthand: “::” any number of multiple, zero-value fields

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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IPv6 Addressing (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Difference between IPv4 and IPv6 addresses (cont’d.)

    • Representation (cont’d.)

      • IPv6 loopback address is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1

      • Abbreviated loopback address ::1

    • Scope

      • IPv6 addresses can reflect scope of transmission’s recipients

      • Unicast address represents single device interface

      • Multicast address represents multiple interfaces (often on multiple devices)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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IPv6 Addressing (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Difference between IPv4 and IPv6 addresses (cont’d.)

    • Scope (cont’d.)

      • Anycast address represents any one interface from a group of interfaces

      • Any one can accept transmission

    • Format Prefix (IPv6)

      • Beginning of address

      • Variable-length field

      • Indicates address type: unicast, multicast, anycast

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Sockets and Ports Internet Protocol)

  • Processes assigned unique port numbers

  • Process’s socket

    • Port number plus host machine’s IP address

  • Port numbers

    • Simplify TCP/IP communications

    • Ensures data transmitted correctly

  • Example

    • Telnet port number: 23

    • IPv4 host address: 10.43.3.87

    • Socket address: 10.43.3.87:23

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-12 A virtual connection for the Telnet service Internet Protocol)

Sockets and Ports (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Sockets and Ports (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Port number range: 0 to 65535

  • Three types

    • Well Known Ports

      • Range: 0 to 1023

      • Operating system or administrator use

    • Registered Ports

      • Range: 1024 to 49151

      • Network users, processes with no special privileges

    • Dynamic and/or Private Ports

      • Range: 49152 through 65535

      • No restrictions

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Table 4-3 Commonly used TCP/IP port numbers Internet Protocol)

Sockets and Ports (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Sockets and Ports (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Servers maintain an editable, text-based file

    • Port numbers and associated services

    • Free to change

      • Not good idea: standards violation

    • May change for security reasons

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Host Names and DNS (Domain Name System) Internet Protocol)

  • TCP/IP addressing

    • Long, complicated numbers

    • Good for computers

  • People remember words better

    • Internet authorities established Internet node naming system

  • Host

    • Internet device

  • Host name

    • Name describing device

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Domain Names Internet Protocol)

  • Domain

    • Group of computers belonging to same organization

    • Share common part of IP address

  • Domain name

    • Identifies domain (loc.gov)

    • Associated with company, university, government organization

  • Fully qualified host name (jasmine.loc.gov)

    • Local host name plus domain name

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Domain Names (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Label (character string)

    • Separated by dots

    • Represents level in domain naming hierarchy

  • Example: www.google.com

    • Top-level domain (TLD): com

    • Second-level domain: google

    • Third-level domain: www

  • Second-level domain

    • May contain multiple third-level domains

  • ICANN established domain naming conventions

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Table 4-4 Top-level domains Internet Protocol)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Domain Names (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • ICANN approved over 240 country codes

  • Host and domain names restrictions

    • Any alphanumeric combination up to 63 characters

    • Include hyphens, underscores, periods in name

    • No other special characters

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Host Files Internet Protocol)

  • ARPAnet used HOSTS.TXT file

    • Associated host names with IP addresses

    • Host matched by one line

      • Identifies host’s name, IP address

      • Alias provides nickname

  • UNIX-/Linux-based computer

    • Host file called hosts, located in the /etc directory

  • Windows 9x, NT, 2000, XP, Vista computer

    • Host file called hosts

    • Located in %systemroot%\system32\drivers\etc folder

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-13 Example host file Internet Protocol)

Host Files (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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DNS (Domain Name System) Internet Protocol)

  • Hierarchical

    • Associate domain names with IP addresses

  • DNS refers to:

    • Application layer service accomplishing association

    • Organized system of computers; databases making association possible

  • DNS redundancy

    • Many computers across globe related in hierarchical manner

    • Root servers

      • 13 computers (ultimate authorities)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-14 Domain name resolution Internet Protocol)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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DNS (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Three components

    • Resolvers

      • Any hosts on Internet needing to look up domain name information

    • Name servers (DNS servers)

      • Databases of associated names, IP addresses

      • Provide information to resolvers on request

    • Namespace

      • Abstract database of Internet IP addresses, associated names

      • Describes how name servers of the world share DNS information

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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DNS (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Resource record

    • Describes one piece of DNS database information

    • Many different types

      • Dependent on function

    • Contents

      • Name field

      • Type field

      • Class field

      • Time to Live field

      • Data length field

      • Actual data

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Configuring DNS Internet Protocol)

  • Large organizations

    • Often maintain two name servers

      • Primary and secondary

    • Ensures Internet connectivity

  • Each device must know how to find server

    • Automatically by DHCP

    • Manually configure workstation TCP/IP properties

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-15 Windows XP Internet Protocol Internet Protocol)

(TCP/IP) Properties dialog box

Configuring DNS (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-16 Windows Vista Internet Protocol Internet Protocol)

Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties dialog box

Configuring DNS (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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DDNS (Dynamic DNS) Internet Protocol)

  • Used in Website hosting

    • Manually changing DNS records unmanageable

  • Process

    • Service provider runs program on user’s computer

      • Notifies service provider when IP address changes

    • Service provider’s server launches routine to automatically update DNS record

      • Effective throughout Internet in minutes

  • Not DNS replacement

  • Larger organizations pay for statically assigned IP address

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Zeroconf (Zero Configuration) Internet Protocol)

  • Collection of protocols

    • Designed by IETF

    • Simplify TCP/IP network node setup

    • IP addresses assigned through IPv4LL

  • IP version 4 Link Local

    • Manages automatic address assignment

      • Locally connected nodes

    • Not used on larger networks

    • Especially useful with network printers

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


Application layer protocols l.jpg
Application Layer Protocols Internet Protocol)

  • Work over TCP or UDP plus IP

    • Translate user requests

      • Into format readable by network

  • HTTP

    • Application layer protocol central to using Web

  • BOOTP and DHCP

    • Automatic address assignment

  • Additional Application layer protocols exist

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Telnet Internet Protocol)

  • Terminal emulation protocol

    • Log on to remote hosts

      • Using TCP/IP protocol suite

    • TCP connection established

      • Keystrokes on user’s machine act like keystrokes on remotely connected machine

  • Often connects two dissimilar systems

  • Can control remote host

  • Drawback

    • Notoriously insecure

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Internet Protocol)

  • Send and receive files via TCP/IP

  • Host running FTP server portion

    • Accepts commands from host running FTP client

  • FTP commands

    • Operating system’s command prompt

      • No special client software required

  • FTP hosts allow anonymous logons

  • After connected to host

    • Additional commands available

    • Type help

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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FTP (cont’d.) Internet Protocol)

  • Graphical FTP clients

    • MacFTP, WS_FTP, CuteFTP, SmartFTP

      • Rendered command-line method less common

  • FTP file transfers directly from modern Web browser

    • Point browser to FTP host

    • Move through directories, exchange files

  • SFTP

    • More secure

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Internet Protocol)

  • Enables file transfers between computers

    • Simpler (more trivial) than FTP

  • TFTP relies on Transport layer UDP

    • Connectionless

    • Does not guarantee reliable data delivery

  • No ID and password required

    • Security risk

  • No directory browsing allowed

  • Useful to load data, programs on diskless workstation

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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NTP (Network Time Protocol) Internet Protocol)

  • Synchronizes network computer clocks

  • Depends on UDP Transport layer services

    • Benefits from UDP’s quick, connectionless nature

      • Time sensitive

      • Cannot wait for error checking

  • Time synchronization importance

    • Routing

    • Time-stamped security methods

    • Maintaining accuracy, consistency between multiple storage systems

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) Internet Protocol)

  • Facilitates newsgroup messages exchange

    • Between multiple servers, users

  • Similar to e-mail

    • Provides means of conveying messages

  • Differs from e-mail

    • Distributes messages to wide group of users at once

  • User subscribes to newsgroup server host

  • News servers

    • Central collection, distribution point for newsgroup messages

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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PING (Packet Internet Groper) Internet Protocol)

  • Provides verification

    • TCP/IP installed, bound to NIC, configured correctly, communicating with network

    • Host responding

  • Uses ICMP services

    • Send echo request and echo reply messages

      • Determine IP address validity

  • Ping IP address or host name

  • Ping loopback address: 127.0.0.1

    • Determine if workstation’s TCP/IP services running

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Figure 4-17 Output from successful and unsuccessful PING tests

PING (cont’d.)

  • Operating system determines Ping command options, switches, syntax

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition


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Summary tests

  • TCP/IP suite

    • Core protocol and subprotocol introduction

  • IPv4 addressing

    • Binary and dotted decimal notation

    • Subnetting

  • Assigning addresses: BOOTP, DHCP, APIPA

  • IPv6 addressing

  • Sockets and Ports

  • Domain names, Host files, DHCP, DNS

  • Other application layer protocols

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition