From gene to protein
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From Gene to Protein - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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From Gene to Protein. DNA Review. Is made of nucleotides. Contains deoxyribose sugar Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine Is a double stranded molecule. Example: A A T G G C T A T A C C G. RNA Review. Is made of nucleotides. Contains ribose sugar

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Dna review
DNA Review

  • Is made of nucleotides.

  • Contains deoxyribose sugar

  • Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine

  • Is a double stranded molecule.

  • Example: A A T G G C T A T A C C G

Rna review
RNA Review

  • Is made of nucleotides.

  • Contains ribose sugar

  • Replaces Thymine with the base Uracil.

  • Is a single stranded molecule.

  • Example: A A U G G C U A U A C C G

What is the job of rna
What is the JOB of RNA?

  • To assist in the synthesis of proteins.

Engage proteins proteins proteins what s the deal with proteins
ENGAGE:Proteins, Proteins, Proteins!!!What’s the deal with proteins?

Explore 1 banana split lab transcription translation
Explore 1:Banana Split Lab(Transcription, Translation)

Explore 2
Explore 2

  • Designer Babies


  • Amino Acids – the building blocks of proteins.

  • Many amino acids linked together make up the many different proteins in our body.

  • DNA contains the code for these proteins and RNA’s assemble the parts.

Protein synthesis overview
Protein Synthesis: overview

  • Transcription: synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA (mRNA)

  • Translation: actual synthesis of a polypeptide under the direction of mRNA

Rna getting ready to do its job
RNA Getting Ready to Do its Job

  • There is NOT just one RNA molecule!!!!


  • 3 types of RNA molecules:

    1. Messenger RNA (m-RNA)

    2. Transfer RNA (t-RNA)

    3. Ribosomal RNA (r-RNA)

  • Each RNA molecule has a specific job in making a protein

M rna transcribes the dna
m-RNA(Transcribes the DNA)

  • Messenger RNA copies the code for a protein from DNA.

  • This is called TRANSCRIPTION

    (Only Occurs INSIDE of the Nucleus of a Cell)

  • Takes code to the ribosome where the protein will be made.

  • m-RNA is divided into smaller units called CODONS.

What is a codon
What is a Codon?

  • Codon - series of 3-nucleotide ‘words’ found on the mRNA for ONE amino acid

  • The genetic instructions are ‘written’ in the DNA as a triplet code

Translation now occurs
Translation NOW Occurs

  • Translation

    • Interpretation or Decoding of the protein code from DNA

  • Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell


  • Involves mRNA, as well as,

    tRNA and rRNA

T rna slide 1 transfer rna
t-RNA, Slide 1(Transfer RNA)

  • Carries the specific amino acid to the ribosome.

  • Each t-RNA will hook up with a codon.

  • One or more t-RNA for each amino acid.

  • Attach to the codon and have an area called an ANTI-CODON.

Trna slide 2
tRNA, Slide 2

  • The three letter code on the tRNA is called an Anticodon

  • This code translates what amino acid should be made

Translation summary
Translation Summary

  • mRNA from nucleus is ‘read’ along its codons by tRNA’s anticodons at the ribosome in the cytoplasm

  • tRNA anticodon (nucleotide triplet); brings ONE amino acid

Ribosomes and rrna ribosomal rna
Ribosomes and rRNA (ribosomal RNA)

  • Ribosomes

    • Protein factories

    • Only Non-membrane bound organelle

  • rRNA

    • What makes up the ribosomes of the cell.

    • Found in high concentration in the nucleolus of the cell’s nucleus.

Mrna trna and the ribosome working together
mRNA, tRNA and the ribosome RNA)Working Together

Elaborate RNA)

  • DNA Article with Codon Table

  • Guided Practice using the Codon Table

  • Building a Protein Synthesis Manipulative

Evaluate RNA)