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First Dinner Conference World Acadian Congress 2004 Sunday, 8 August 2004 The Pines Resort Inn, Digby, Nova Scotia “Oars to Water! / Rames a l’Eau!”
“Promesse de l’Acadie” The Next Chapter Special Presentation by: J. R. Theriault, Founder/Director, famille acadienne TERRIOT ACADIAN FAMILY
Overview • Summarize ‘Sail from Le Havre to La Hève’ • Goals of ‘Promesse de l’Acadie’ • Bibliography: Some notes and analysis • Prologue • Preview of the Decades: 1650 - 1740
Sail from Le Havre to La Hève • Covers period from 1600 through 1650 • Presents an interpretation of the life of Jehan and Perrine from Martaizé to Port Royal… • Against a backdrop of the history for the period • See the 47 Acadian families settled in Port Royal • Cappucins missionaries operated a school for boys of colonial families and some Micmacs… • Period ends with the accidental death of d’Aulnay, • With Jehan & Perrine established in Port Royal on Rivière au Dauphin and their first five children… • Scene of Acadian life from Rameau’s “Une Colonie Féodale…”
Goals of ‘Promesse’ • Cover period 1650 through 1740’s • Examine the highlights of the history of those decades • Present likely impact of historical events on the Terriot family • Analyze the details of the progress of the Terriot family in family size, relationships, accomplishments, weddings, deaths, and migrations…
Bibliography: Notes and Analysis • Arsenault, Bona.Histoire et Généalogie des Acadiens. Volumes 1- 6.Les Éditions Marquis Ltée. July 1988 • Bergeron, Adrien.Le Grand Arrangement Des Acadiens au Québec. Huit Volumes. Éditions Élysée. Montreal. 1981. ISBN:0-88545-055-8 • Griffiths, Naomi E.S.The Contexts of Acadian History, 1686 – 1784. McGill-Queen’s University Press. 1992. • LeBlanc, Dudley J.The Acadian Miracle. Evangeline Publishing Company. Lafayette, Louisiana. 1966. Library of Congress 65-28646. • Parkman, Francis. A Half-Century of Conflict. Part Sixth. Vols I & II.Little, Brown, and Company. Boston. 1892. • Parkman, Francis.Montcalm and Wolfe.France and England in North America. Part Seventh Vols 1 & II. Little, Brown, and Company. Boston. 1884. (http://www.ourroots.ca/f/toc.asp?id=805) • Richard, Edouard.Acadia – Missing Links of a Lost Chapter in American History. John Lovell & Son. Montreal. Home Book Company. NY. 1895. (http://www.ourroots.ca/f/toc.asp?id=1361) • Smith, Philip H.Acadia - A Lost Chapter in American History. Pawling, New York, 1884. (http://www.ourroots.ca/f/toc.asp?id=1363) • Thériault, Fidèle.Les Familles de Caraquet. Self-Published. 1985. ISBN 0-9692151-0-X • White, Stephen A.Dictionaire Généalogique des Familles Acadiennes. Première Partie 1636 à 1714. Deux volumes. Centre d’Études Acadiennes. Université de Moncton. 1999.
Bibliography:Notes and Analysis • History of Acadian histories: • 1787-1795: Rev. Andrew Brown prepares manuscript • 1829: Thomas C. Halliburton: ‘History of Nova Scotia’ • 1852: Rev. Brown’s manuscript found. • 1859: Rameau de St-Père: ‘La France aux Colonies’ (http://www.ourroots.ca/f/toc.asp?id=1359) • 1865: Beamish Murdoch: ‘History of Nova Scotia’ • 1869: Thomas B. Akins: ‘Selections from Public Documents’ • 1879: Hannay: ‘History of Acadia’ (http://www.ourroots.ca/f/toc.asp?id=872) • 1884: Smith: ‘Acadia –A Lost Chapter…’ • 1884: Parkman: ‘Montcalm and Wolfe’ • 1888: Casgrain: ‘Pèlerinage au Pays d’Evangéline’ • 1889: Rameau de St-Père: ‘Une colonie Féodale en Amérique’ • 1892: Parkman: ‘A Half-Century of Conflict’ • 1895: Richard: ‘Acadia – Missing Links…’
Bibliography:Notes and Analysis • Classifications of histories written in the 19th century: • Does not consider Rev. Brown Manuscript: Halliburton1, Murdoch2, Hannay2, and Parkman • Appears to be limited to Akins’ ‘Selections’: Parkman • Considers Rev. Brown Manuscript: Smith3, Casgrain, Richard3 • Did not have the benefit of access to Rev. Brown’s Manuscript. • May not have had the benefit of access to Rev. Brown’s Manuscript. • Key message is that a chapter of North American history on Acadia is missing.
Bibliography:Notes and Analysis • Francis Parkman (1823-1893) • A Boston Brahmin, ‘blue blood’ • Highly acclaimed and prolific historian of North American history. Wrote “Oregon Trail” and 11 other volumes of North American history including ‘Montcalm and Wolfe’. • Considered by some critics to have taken ‘editorial prerogative’ with his histories; sometimes choosing to ignore some important facts or events. Focused on prose over accuracy. • An agnostic who the saw the ‘…eventual success of the British as representing the victory of progress [Protestant democracy] over reaction [Catholic despotism]."
Bibliography:Notes and Analysis • Edouard Richard (1844-1904) • ‘An Acadian’. Former member of Canadian House of Commons, and attorney. • ‘Acadia’, 2 volumes; thoughtful, provocative. Excruciating detail, complicated logic and rationale • Richard’s case: • the Acadians were deceived into staying until the English were finished with them. • Charles Lawrence did not follow the direction of his home government but collaborated with Governor Shirley to evict the Acadians.
Prologue • Century molded the Acadian character and culture for future generations • Early decades: time of intermittent peace and prosperity • Acadians learned to live on their own; governed through their Delegates (Deputies) • Population grew to more than 15,000; 13,000 acres of farmland and over 100,000 cattle • Passage from Richard’s book on the Acadian character
1650-Coming of Age • Political Scene • Colony grown to over 40 family names; high birth rate, low infant mortality, rapid growth • La Tour consolidates control over colony • Emmanuel Le Borgne arrives in Port Royal to collect on d’Aulnay’s extensive debts • Sedgwick captures Port Royal for England and leaves Acadians in charge • Trade with New England begins
1650-Coming of Age • The Terriot’s • Size of family at end of decade: 19 • Jehan & Perrine develop ‘domaine’ on Rivière au Dauphin, 10km east of Port Royal. • Pierre Thibodeau arrives with Le Borgne and settles on Pré Ronde across the river from Terriots. • Jehan & Perrine complete their family in 1654 with their last child, a son, Pierre.
1650-Coming of Age • The Terriot’s (cont’d) • Jehan continues to work on clearing more land but there are many distractions with the common dike works and the attacks • It is not clear to what extent the Terriot’s were affected or involved in the minor skirmishes on Port Royal but Claude (17) and Jehan II (15) were probably involved in defending Port Royal from Sedgwick’s attack in 1654
1660: Peace under French • The Political Scene: 1667 Treaty of Breda returns Acadia to France • The Terriot’s: the decade of grand-children • Size of family at end of decade: 43 • 1660: Pierre Thibodeau marries Jeanne. Settle Pré Ronde. • 1661: Claude marries Marie Gautherot, the girl next door. Jehan grants a part of his land to Claude. • 1666: Bonaventure marries Jeanne Boudrot, daughter of the Lt-General of Justice. ‘Venture’ works father-in-law’s land. • 1668: Pierre Guilbeault, new arrival, marries Catherine. 1668: Germain marries Andrée Brun. Jehan grants a part of his land to Germain.
1670:Beaubassin Founded • Political Scene: • Total population exceeds 500 • 2 Sep 1670, M. de Grandfontaine assumes control of colony. Commissions first census of Acadia • 1671: Census finds 350 Acadians in Acadia (47 family names) on 70 farms; 650 cattle; 430 sheep • 1672: Jacques Bourgeois founds Beaubassin • 1676: New Governor de Vallière moves capital to Beaubassin • 1676: first Catholic parish (St-John the Baptist) founded in Port Royal • 1678: Census finds 515 settlers
1670:Beaubassin Founded • Terriot family: • Size of family at end of decade: 72 • 1671: Jehan and Perrine, 70 and 60, respectively with their last child, Pierre tending to their needs. Pierre is 17. • By 1671, Jehan and Perrine are enjoying their 15 grandchildren and will have 29 by end of decade. • Most of their grandchildren are close enough for weekly if not daily visits… ‘Venture’ and Catherine’s families live about an hour away by canoe and can visit weekly. • 1678: Later in this decade, census finds Jehan and Perrine both deceased. Claude is now the patriarch.
1670:Beaubassin Founded • Update on Claude • Land holdings seemed to have decreased except for some additional property on ‘Gros Cap’, as have livestock… • Their neighbors are the Gaudet’s, Savoie’s, Dupuis’, Lanoue’s and Blanchard’s. • Seven children… three are adolescents… Germain is now helping his father while Marie and Marguerite are able to help their mother… • As with their father, children probably take advantage of some schooling provided by missionary in Port Royal
1670:Beaubassin Founded • Update on Jehan II • 1671: Census records that Jehan II is 32 years of age and married. • No record of current location. He is not in Port Royal • No record of wife’s name or marriage date. • Could he have joined Nicholas Denys in his hunting and fishing trade? • Stephen White suggests that he could have established himself elsewhere like many other children of first settlers did…
1670:Beaubassin Founded • Update on Bonaventure • Complete their family (4 daughters) in this decade. Elder daughter, Marie approaches adolescence • ‘Venture’ continues working with his brothers-in-law to farm the Boudrot land just 2km west of Port Royal village • Land and livestock holdings do not change much…
1670:Beaubassin Founded • Update on Jeanne • Thibodeau’s add 5 children to their family in this decade (total of 10) • Second daughter, Marie II at 15 years old marries Pierre Lejeune dit Briard II in 1678. First member of 3rd generation (grandchildren) to marry. • It will be another decade before Pierre’s sons can help • Pierre and Jeanne’s land and livestock holdings nearly double in size during this decade (perhaps the Le Borgne connection?)
1670:Beaubassin Founded • Update on Germain • Germain dies tragically between 1672-1678 leaving Andrée with three infant children… • Death was either accidental or health-related…no wars in this time period. • Germain had been cultivating the acreage given to him by his father • Andrée remarries to Emmanuel ‘Manuel’ Hébert sometime between 1678 and 1680. Andrée may have kept her property in her second marriage…
1670:Beaubassin Founded • Update on Catherine • Pierre Guilbeau and Catherine acquire an impressive property holding very quickly • Add four children to their family this decade (total of five) • It will be 10-15 years before Pierre can have help from his son
1670:Beaubassin Founded • Update on Pierre • Pierre marries Cecile Landry, daughter of René ‘Le Jeune’ and Marie Bernard around 1678 • Unless Jehan and Perrine died in the months after Pierre’s wedding but before the Census of 1678, they probably did not see the day of Pierre and Cecile’s wedding • Pierre’s holdings at 24 years of age in 1678 are already at 4 acres and 4 head of cattle
1680:Grand Pré Founded • The Political Scene: • Total population approaches 1,000 (1686 Census) • Grand Pré was founded by the Melançon’s and Terriot’s. • Noted as the confluence of several rivers: rivières aux Canards, Gaspereau, Vieux Habitants, Saint-Antoine and Sainte Croix • Forms a huge delta rich and ideal for diking • In 1680, Pierre Melançon sold his Port Royal holdings and settled at the mouth of the Gaspereau River • In 1682, Pierre Terriot settled further west at mouth of the Sainte-Antoine River
1680:Grand Pré Founded • The Political Scene: • According to Arsenault, not many initially followed Melançon to Grand Pré for the first few years • Pierre Terriot brought his brothers-in-law, Claude and Antoine Landry; as well as René LeBlanc, Étienne Hébert, Claude Boudrot, and his brother Claude’s son, Jean Terriot. • Later, Alain Bujeaut, Jean Mouton, André Célestin joined the Melançon settlement followed by several families…
1680:Grand Pré Founded • The Political Scene: • Others settled along the Rivière Saint-Antoine and aux Canards including: • 1687: First church of Grand Pré, St-Charles des Mines is built • Arsenault reports that Pierre Melançon was not disposed to encouraging new settlers to come to Grand-Pré; ‘…un charactère ombrageux…’ • Pierre Terriot however was young, industrious, full of ambition, a likeable outgoing and jovial character, he was an advocate for new settlers; most of which were young couples in their 20’s determined to make a new future. • Passage from Arsenault on Pierre Terriot…
1680:Grand Pré Founded • The Terriot Family: • Size of family at end of decade: 115 • For the first time, the Terriot family is separated with Pierre and Claude’s son, Jean in Grand-Pré • These are the golden years for the Terriot family. Peace reigns in Acadia. Claude and his elder siblings approach their mid-life… for these Acadians, life is good! • 12 of their children (Jehan and Perrine’s grandchildren) will marry in this decade… and will have 18 children. • The family continues to cultivate their small farms to sustain their livelihood and have enough left over to trade and barter… • 5 October 1687: Claude signs a testimonial to the work of Charles de Menou Seigneur d’Aulnay (ref: Archives Nationale de France)
1680:Grand Pré Founded • Update on Claude’s family: • Germain (24) marries M.Anne Richard sometime before Census of 1686 • Marie (19) marries Pierre LeBlanc abt 1684. They have a child, Pierre in 1685 • Marguerite (16) marries Claude Landry abt 1683. They have two daughters, Marie-Madeleine in 1684, Marie-Josephe in 1687. Claude joins Pierre in Grand-Pré but Marguerite remains in Port Royal • Anne (15) marries Vincent Babin in 1688. They have a son, Jean in 1689. • Jean joins his uncle Pierre in Grand-Pré
1680:Grand Pré Founded • Update on Bonaventure’s family: • Marie marries Claude Gautrot, her aunt Marie Gautrot’s younger brother. • ‘Venture’ continues to work on his father-in-law’s farm in Port-Royal
1680:Grand Pré Founded • Update on Jeanne’s family: • Marie I marries Antoine Landry in 1681. They have four children: Antoine (1683), Elisabeth (1685), Anne (1687), Marguerite (1689), the first 3 of which are born in Grand-Pré but baptized later in Beaubassin. • Marie III maries Charles Robichaud in Port Royal • Anne Marie marries Claude Boudrot in 1682. They have three sons: Claude (1683), Michel (1685), Joseph (1687). The first in Port Royal and the others in Grand-Pré. Claude and Anne Marie joined their uncle Pierre in Grand-Pré.
1680:Grand Pré Founded • Update on Jeanne’s family (cont’d): • Marie-Catherine marries Claude Landry in 1684. They have two children in this decade: Jeanne (1685) and René (1688) both born in Grand-Pré. Claude and Marie-Catherine also join their uncle Pierre in Grand-Pré. • Jeanne marries Mathieu de Goutin in 1685. Mathieu’s letter (Sep 1694) is the basis of our knowledge today about Pierre Terriot.
1680:Grand Pré Founded • Update on Germain’s family: • Germain (18), Pierre (15) and Catherine (12) at the time of the Census of 1686 are with their mother and step-father, Emanuel Hébert. • During this decade, ‘Manuel’ and Andrée have six children of their own: Guillaume (1681), Marguerite (1682), Jean-Emmanuel (1683), Jacques (1684), Alexandre (1685) and Martin (1687). • Germain and Pierre no doubt are helpful to ‘Manuel’ in cultivating their farm and tending to the livestock.
1680:Grand Pré Founded • Update on Catherine’s family: • Marguerite (17) marries Martin Blanchard in 1686. They have a daughter, Marguerite (1689) • Jeanne (15) marries Abraham Dugas II in 1685. They have two children: Anne (1686) and Joseph (1688). • Pierre and Catherine’s first son, Hugues, will be able to start helping his father.
1680:Grand Pré Founded • Update on Pierre’s family: • Pierre and Cécile are now settlers in Grand-Pré on the Rivière St-Antoine • This is a most exciting time for the two… • Logistics of moving grain stores to Minas Basin is a key concern for Pierre • For Cécile… how do we accommodate all of these people?
1690 - 1750:Summary • 1690: English Rule… Again • 1700: Tensions with English Rise • 1710: Acadia Fades • 1720: Oath and Subterfuges • 1730: Subterfuges Continue • 1740: Lawrence Arrives
Wrap-Up • ‘Promesse de l’Acadie’ will be published in 10 web pages (one for each decade)… • Include the censuses reformatted to highlight the Terriot family… • New section will be published this winter. Much work remains… (‘Oars to the Water!’) • Organize working group to review, critique, translate the work • What’s next? Terriot family in Deportation years • Questions?
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