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Human factors issues. A discussion on selected topics Rob Methorst September 27, 2007. Outline. Introduction Systems approach to Vulnerable Road Users Safety Culture in Hazardous Goods Transport Sustainable Road Safety – an update. Systems approach to Vulnerable Road Users.

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Human factors issues l.jpg

Human factors issues

A discussion on selected topics

Rob Methorst

September 27, 2007


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Outline

  • Introduction

  • Systems approach to Vulnerable Road Users

  • Safety Culture in Hazardous Goods Transport

  • Sustainable Road Safety – an update


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Systems approach to Vulnerable Road Users

  • Issue and reason

    • VRU accidents do not follow trends

    • Neglected issue in research

    • Ageing of the population: expected mobility restraints and higher risks

    • Hidden single accidents (~70% of VRU victims (= 40% of all travel victims ER+))

  • Activities:

    • 2003 report Vulnerable Road Users

    • policy development Vulnerable Road Users, particularly re. bicyclist

    • COST 358 Pedestrians’ Quality Needs

  • Focus on mobility needs, including safety

  • 6 Main elements


  • Vulnerable road users pizza model l.jpg
    Vulnerable Road Users – Pizza model


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    Vulnerable Road Users - TRIPOD

    The developers’ (Prof. Wagenaar) dog had only 3 legs and was called ‘Driepoot’(English = Tripod)


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    Vulnerable Road Users - perspectives

    • Functional perspective:

      usage value, what is being offered = intrinsic quality supply, looking at the system from the ‘head’

      2. Perception perspective:

      what is being requested = subjective quality demand, looking at the system from the ‘heart’, including attitudes towards and of pedestrians.

      3. Durability and Future Prospects:

      whilst # 1 and # 2 are static quality descriptions, # 3 refers to a dynamic perspective. Durability is, like user value and perception value, a relative value and depends on current qualities, future social values and future use of the physical environment and transport system.


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    Vulnerable road users – Hierarchy of needs


    Vulnerable road users universal design l.jpg
    Vulnerable Road Users – Universal Design


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    Vulnerable Road Users – Cascade approach


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    Vulnerable Road Users - Discussion

    • What are ideas regarding making the principles operational?

    • What views and experiences are there in the USA regarding systems approach?


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    Safety Culture in Hazardous Goods Transport

    • Issue: feasibility of implementation of Safety Care Systems in the Hazardous Goods Transport industry.

    • Reason: pursuit of continuous improvement of safety as part of the Dutch policy note on HGT; catastrophic nature of accidents

    • Current situation: divers market situation; overall relatively safe

    • Pre-conditioning for measures not yet favourable

    • Policy scenarios:

      • Education, communication and enforcement

      • Using market mechanisms


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    Safety Culture in HGT – divers market

    The market:

    • International character

    • Many different players:

      • shippers (interests, imago)

      • large, medium sized and small transport firms (cost control, options for implementing SC)

      • mixed and specialised transporters

      • ‘rogue’ drivers and firms from the formal East Block

      • Charters

    • Many different products and clients

      • industrial chemicals

      • Gasses

      • Fuel distribution

      • Ammunition and fireworks

      • Waste and refuse transport

    • Specialised transport vehicles and containerization


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    Safety Culture in HGT – current situation

    • Hardly any serious accidents, but clearly a public fear - political item.

    • Hazardous Goods Traffic is very divers and relatively safe. Main distinction:

      • long distance bulk transport, medium and large firms; good safety record

      • Distribution = small firms; questionable safety record

    • Chemical industry (mainly petrochemicals) regulate transport safety

    • Distribution market parties are not interested in implementing Safety Culture


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    Safety Culture in HGT - trends

    Trends in Europe and NL:

    • Internationalisation

      • Common Market-effect; intake of new EU states and other former East European states

      • Outsourcing to cheap foreign drivers and small companies

    • Containerisation

      • Development of strong containers for fluids and gasses

      • Less special demand on driver/transporter skills and education

    • Fragmentation

      • Outsourcing transport by shippers

      • Outsourcing transport to former employees


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    Safety Culture in HGT – towards implementation

    • Pre-conditioning for measures

      • Vehicle requirements

      • License system

      • Liability transfer: insurance resolutive conditions

    • Policy scenarios:

      • ‘there is something for everybody’: problem awareness; analysis & quick wins; tailored solutions; building on current safety care; communition and education.

      • Market scenario: market mechanism; incentives; flanking policy; bonus/malus; integrated


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    Safety Culture - Discussion

    • Small companies inherently more unsafe?

    • Is outsourcing controllable?

    • What real options are there to implement Safety Management?


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    Sustainable Road Safety – an update

    • Reason:

      ambitious targets; limitation of traditional approaches re. achievements

    • Man is measure of things

    • Prevention is better than a curative approach

    • Road classification

    • Integrated policies

    • Safety principles

      See website: www.sustainablesafety.nl


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    Sustainable Road Safety – human centred

    Man is measure of things:

    • environment (road, vehicle) should conform to what humans are capable of and provide protection

    • humans should be properly instructed to prepare them for safe behaviour

    • Humans should eventually be supervised to see

      whether they are safe road users


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    Sustainable Road Safety: focus on prevention

    Primary preventive approach:

    • System approach, but focussed on safety

    • Prevention of latent errors that can lead to dangerous behaviour and ultimately crashes

    • Application of 5 safety principles ( 2 new)

    • Decentralisation of responsibilities and implementation

    • Supervision and inspection


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    Sustainable Safety - principles

    • Functionality of roads

      Roads should either flow (flow roads) or provide access (access roads) and are connected by distributor roads

    • Homogeneity of masses and/or speed and direction

      Vehicles that differ too much in mass or speed and that use the same space should be physically separated from each other

    • Predictability/ recognizability

      Layout of road and predictability of road course and road behaviour; self explaining roads, vehicles and human behaviour

    • Forgivingness

      Accidents should not lead to (severe) injury of death

    • State awareness

      capability or possibility of road users estimating own task competency correctly; every road users should know what his skills are and act accordingly


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    Sustainable Safety – effects and lessons

    • Since introduction many improvements

      • Road classification

      • Traffic Calming: > 50% of urban roads are 30 km/h

      • Roundabouts on distributor roads

      • Moped from cycle paths to carriage way

      • Shared responsibility National – Regional – Local authorities

      • Enhanced law enforcement: speeds, DUI, safety belt, bicycle lights

      • Impulse to traffic safety education

    • Too little focus on non-infrastructural aspects of the vision

    • Low cost implementation limits effectiveness


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    Sustainable Safety – issues

    Basic components:

    • Infrastructure

    • Vehicles

    • Education

    • Legislation and law enforcement

      Special issues:

    • Speed management

    • Drink-and-drug driving

    • Cyclists and pedestrians

    • Motorized two-wheelers

    • Heavy Goods Vehicles


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    Sustainable Safety – Light Rail example

    • Light rail: a come-back in urban areas in EU

    • Risk:

      • Level crossings

      • Relatively large mass

      • Silent vehicles

      • Evasive actions by light rail no option

      • Relatively low risk levels for cars,

        but VRU meet high fatality risk levels

        (bike 30x, pedestrian 40x)

    • Safety requirements:

      • Preferably different levels crossing

      • If not possible:

        • distributor road crossing only fully guarded

        • Property access roads: guarded

      • If not possible: Light Rail speeds less than 30 km/h at level crossings


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    Sustainable Safety - Discussion

    • Second generation policies: a bridge too far?

      • tackling current problems versus prevention: can it all be done?

    • making safety principles operational?

    • preconditions for success?


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