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Geographic Information Systems SGO 1910, 4930 November 8, 2005. Announcements. eSeminar in GIS: Putting the e into GI Science (Mark Birkin, Leeds). Thursday, November 17, room 3514 Georg Sverdups Hus.

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announcements
Announcements
  • eSeminar in GIS: Putting the e into GI Science (Mark Birkin, Leeds). Thursday, November 17, room 3514 Georg Sverdups Hus.
  • Norsk ESRI brukerkonferanse 2006Den 17. norske ESRI brukerkonferansen går av stabelen 1. -3. februar 2006. Konferansen byr på en rekke foredrag, tekniske minikurs, bransjeseminar og sosiale aktiviteter. Vi ser frem til spennende dager sammen med deg! Påmelding og mer informasjon kommer senere.
announcements3
Announcements
  • Extended access to GIS lab during Nov.-Dec?
  • GIS Internships: Any interest?
oslo project groups
Oslo Project Groups
  • Marita Sanni, Kristin I. Dankel, Solveig Melå + Svein Johan Hansen?
  • Åslaug Enger Olsen, Maria Lyngstad, Guro Bakke Håndlykken og Jorunn Randby (4)
  • Nina Ambro Knutsen, Ellen Winje og Leif Ingholm, Gjermund Steinskog (4)
  • Birte Mobraaten, Hans Petter Wiken, Silje Hernes and Bente Lise Stubberud (4)
  • Daniel Molin, Ida Sjølander, Anne-Lise Folland and Nicolai Steineger (4)
  • Hæge Skjæveland, Marie Aaberge, Cecilie Hirsch, Kaja Korsnes Kristensen (4)
  • Urs Dippon, Steven huiching Yip, Harald Kvifte & Eirik Waag (4)
  • Marthe Stiansen, Marielle Stigum, Tomas Nesset, Andreas Skjetne (4)
  • Andreas Dyken, Håkon Grevbo, Terje-Andre Gudmundsen, Øystein Kristiansen (4)
  • Andreas Wilhelm Westgaard, Grete Simensen og Ingvild Jøranli, Solveig Lyby (4)
  • Linda Markham, Marte Hunsdal Knutsen, Anette Nesvold, Berit Indset (4)
  • Magnus Campbell, Johannes Devik Brekke, Espen Fait, Mathias Ødegård (4)
  • Julie Aaraas, Tonje Einarsen, Anne Marie Skancke, Bård Bergland (4)
introduction
Introduction
  • Output is the pinnacle of GIS projects
  • Two main types of output
    • Maps
    • Visualizations (see chapter 13)
  • Maps are good at summarizing and communicating
what is a map
What is a map?
  • “A graphic depiction of all or part of a geographic realm in which the real-world features have been replaced by symbols in their correct spatial location at a reduced scale.”

power line

map function in gis
Map function in GIS
  • Storage
  • Temporary communication
  • Intermediate check of data
  • Final report
characteristics of map
Characteristics of Map
  • Two main types
    • Topographic
    • Thematic
  • Some map problems
    • Can miscommunicate
    • Each map is just one of all possible maps
    • Complex maps can be difficult to understand
map types
Map Types
  • Point data
  • Line data
  • Area data
  • Volume data
  • Time data
choosing a map type
Choosing a Map Type
  • Cartographers have designed hundreds of map types: methods of cartographic representation.
  • Not all GISs allow all types.
  • Most have a set of basic types
  • Depends heavily on the dimension of the data to be shown in the map figure.
choosing the wrong type
Choosing the Wrong Type
  • Fairly common GIS error.
  • Due to lack of knowledge about cartographic options.
  • Can still have perfect symbolization.
  • Possibility of misinformation
  • Definite reduction in communication effectiveness.
choosing types
Choosing Types
  • Check the data
    • Continuous
    • Discrete
    • Accuracy & Precision
    • Reliability
  • Dimension (Point, Line, Area, Volume)
  • Scale of Measurement (Nominal, ordinal, etc.)
  • GIS capability
  • Is there a need to supplement GIS software? (e.g. with a drawing package)
maps and cartography
Maps and Cartography
  • Map – ‘digital or analog output from a GIS showing information using well established cartographic conventions’
  • Cartography is the art, science and techniques of making maps
slide24

The Need for Design

  • To appear professional and avoid errors, GIS maps should reflect cartographic knowledge about map design.
  • A map has a visual grammar or structure that must be understood and used if the best map design is desired.
  • Cartographic conventions should be followed (e.g. forests should be green).
map design
Map Design
  • Good map design requires that map elements be placed in a balanced arrangement within the neat line.
  • A GIS map is designed in a process called the design loop.
the parts of a map map elements
The Parts of a Map: Map Elements

Border

Title

Neat line

The United States of America

Figure

Legend

Scale

Ground

Washington,D.C.

National Capital

Alaska

0

1

2

3

4

Hawaii

hundreds of

kilometers

0

4

Lambert Conformal Conic Projection

0

4

Source: U.S. Dept. of State

Inset

Place name

Credits

North Arrow

slide28

Inset map

Scale

Author

North Arrow

Data Source

Map Body

Projection

Legend

Grid

Title

visual balance is key
Visual balance is key!
  • Visual balance is affected by:
  • the "weight" of the symbols
  • the visual hierarchy of the symbols and elements
  • the location of the elements with respect to each other and the visual center of the map.
visual center
Visual center

5% of height

5% of height

Portrait

Landscape

visual layout

Title Here

Title Here

Visual Layout

Eye expects (1) balance and (2) alignment

text selection and placement

0

0

Text: Selection and Placement

6

6

e

t

u

o

R

S

d

U

u

M

Kristiansand

e

k

2

a

Bærum

L

Oslo

BM 232

POINT

LINE

AREA

Some cartographic label placement conventions. Points: right and above preferred with no overlap.

Lines: Following the direction of the line, curved if a river.

Areas: On a gently curved line following the shape of the figure and upright.

text placement
Text placement

Trondheim

Trondheim

Path right

Trondheim

P

a

t

h

D

o

w

n

Trondheim

Bogstadvann

symbol weight

Shading

Hue

Pattern

Line weight

Symbol “weight”
map design and gis
Map Design and GIS
  • When a GIS map is the result of a complex analytical or modeling process, good design is essential for understanding.
  • The map is what distinguishes GIS as a different approach to the management of information, so extra care should be taken to improve the final maps that a GIS generates in a GIS task.
limitations of paper maps
Limitations of Paper Maps
  • Fixed scale
  • Fixed extent
  • Static view
  • Flat and hence limited for 3D visualization
  • Only presents ‘complete’ world view
  • Map producer-centric
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Cartography is both an art and a science
  • Maps are fundamental to GIS projects
  • Modern advances in cartography make it easy to produce good and bad maps
  • New technology and especially the Internet has change the content and techniques of GIS-based cartography