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Heart disease is #1 cause of death in this country…what foods raise LDL (bad) cholesterol? Are all fats bad for us? PowerPoint Presentation
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Heart disease is #1 cause of death in this country…what foods raise LDL (bad) cholesterol? Are all fats bad for us? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Heart disease is #1 cause of death in this country…what foods raise LDL (bad) cholesterol? Are all fats bad for us? Does fat make us fat? Can a product be “cholesterol free” and still raise your LDL blood cholesterol? . Lipid & Fat: Overview. What is a lipid?

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slide1
Heart disease is #1 cause of death in this country…what foods raise LDL (bad) cholesterol?
  • Are all fats bad for us?
  • Does fat make us fat?
  • Can a product be “cholesterol free” and still raise your LDL blood cholesterol?
lipid fat overview
Lipid & Fat: Overview
  • What is a lipid?
    • Triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol
  • Triglycerides = Fat
    • Saturated & unsaturated
    • 2 Essential fatty acids
      • Omega 3 & Omega 6
    • Trans fat
  • Why do you need fat?
  • How does fat & cholesterol travel through your body?
    • VLDL, LDL & HDL
  • How to eat to prevent heart disease
    • Good fat & bad fat
lipids
Lipids
  • Triglycerides
    • Fats and oils
  • Phospholipids
    • The body can make what it needs
    • Lecithin
  • Sterols
    • The body can make what it needs
    • Cholesterol
triglycerides
Triglycerides
  • Major lipid in the diet and body
    • Fat in food = Triglycerides
    • Fat in your blood = Triglycerides
    • Fat = Triglycerides
  • Made up of glycerol and 3 fatty acids
fatty acids
Fatty Acids
  • The Type of Fatty Acid Determines:
    • Whether the fat is solid or liquid at room temperature
    • Whether the fat is healthy or unhealthy for you
  • 2 Types of Fatty Acids
    • Saturated fatty acids
    • Unsaturated fatty acids
      • Monounsaturated
      • Polyunsaturated
saturated fatty acid
Saturated Fatty Acid
  • All single bonds between carbons
  • Saturated “full” with hydrogen atoms
  • Hard at room temperature
saturated fat
Saturated Fat
  • Sources: Beef, salami, full fat dairy products (whole milk, ice cream, butter), tropical oils (coconut, palm kernel) and products made with these oils
  • Health effects:
    • Increases LDL “bad” cholesterol in the blood
monounsaturated fatty acid
Monounsaturated Fatty Acid
  • 1 double bond
  • One double bond: Not saturated “not full” with hydrogen
  • Liquid at room temperature
monounsaturated fat
Monounsaturated Fat
  • Sources: Olive oil, canola oil, peanuts, almonds, pecans, avocado, olives
  • Health effects:
    • Decreases LDL “bad” cholesterol
    • Increases HDL “good” cholesterol
polyunsaturated fatty acid
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
  • 2 or more double bonds
  • Liquid at room temperature
polyunsaturated fat
Polyunsaturated Fat
  • Sources: Vegetable oil (soybean, corn, sunflower, etc), walnuts, sunflower seeds, mayonnaise, some fish
  • Health effects:
    • Decreases LDL “bad” cholesterol
    • Decreases HDL “good” cholesterol (not good!)
    • Provides omega 3 fatty acids
pair share
Pair & Share
  • What food do you consume that has:
    • Saturated fat
    • Monounsaturated fat
    • Polyunsaturated fat
  • What type of fat do you probably consume the most?

Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated

essential fatty acids
Essential Fatty Acids
  • Polyunsaturated fats that can not be made in the body
  • Omega 3 – double bond at 3rd carbon
  • Omega 6 – double bond at 6th carbon
    • Most abundant essential fatty acid
    • 20:1 ratio omega 6 to omega 3 consumed
omega 3 fatty acids
Omega 3 Fatty Acids
  • Benefits:
    • Reduce risk of heart disease and stroke
      • Prevent blood clots
      • Makes blood vessels more flexible
    • Decrease inflammatory response
    • May help prevent depression
  • Sources:
    • Cold water fish: Salmon, Tuna, Trout, Halibut
    • Flaxseed
    • Walnuts
    • Fish supplements (300-700 mg/day)
  • Trace amounts in soybean and canola oil (not enough for positive health effects)
pair share1
Pair & Share
  • What foods do you currently eat that have omega 3 fatty acids?
  • What foods do you like with omega 3 fatty acids but don’t eat often?
  • Would you like to increase your intake of omega 3 fatty acids? If so…how would you do this?
triglycerides1
Triglycerides
  • Fat in food contains several different types of fatty acids.
  • Most fat contains 1 predominate type of fatty acid. This is how we classify a fat.
trans fat
Trans Fat
  • Hydrogenation: Adding hydrogen to a polyunsaturated fat.
    • Partially hydrogenated
    • Hydrogenated
  • Hydrogenation makes an unsaturated oil more solid at room temperature.
  • Hydrogenation yields TRANS FAT
  • Negative Health Effects:
    • Increases “bad” cholesterol (LDL)
    • Decreases “good” cholesterol (HDL)
    • Most harmful of all the fats
  • Must be included on food labels
cis vs trans fatty acids
Cis vs Trans Fatty Acids
  • Cis fatty acids
    • Chain is bent
    • Occur naturally
  • Trans fatty acids
    • Chain is straighter
    • Produced by hydrogenation
why do you need fat
Why do you need fat?
  • Functions of Fat
    • Energy source
      • Provides 9 calories per gram
      • Supplies 60% of body’s resting energy needs
      • Form of stored energy in adipose tissue
    • Insulation and protection
    • Carrier of fat-soluble vitamins
    • Flavor and satiety
how does fat become a part of you
How does fat become a part of you?
  • Stomach breaks down about 30% of fat
  • MOST DIGESTION occurs in SMALL INTESTINE
    • Bile and pancreatic lipase break fat into monoglycerides and free fatty acids
  • After absorption inside intestinal wall, the triglyceride is remade
    • TG, cholesterol and phospholipds join with protein to form a lipoprotein carrier.
  • Transported via lipoproteins in the bloodstream
cholesterol
Cholesterol
  • Used to make bile in the liver
  • Abundant in cell membranes, nerve & brain tissue
  • NOT ESSENTIAL - The body makes it
  • Only found in animal products
  • High saturated fat and trans fat diet raises blood cholesterol MORE THAN cholesterol in food
    • Product can tout “no cholesterol” and still contribute to high blood cholesterol
phospholipids
Phospholipids
  • Glycerol with 2 fatty acids and a phosphate nitrogen component
  • Compatible in both fat and water (blood)
  • Major component of cell membranes allowing both fatty and water soluble substances into cell
  • Coat the surface of lipoproteins
lipoproteins in the body
Lipoproteins in the Body
  • VLDL: Very-low-density lipoproteins
    • 2/3 triglycerides. Delivers triglycerides to cells
    • People with Metabolic Syndrome who eat a high carb diet produce large amounts (liver produces TG)
  • LDL: Low-density lipoproteins (“bad”)
    • Deliver cholesterol to cells
    • Decrease by limiting saturated and trans fat
  • HDL: High-density lipoproteins (“good”)
    • Removes cholesterol; protective
    • Increase by including monounsaturated fats and exercise
  • Lipoprotiens – NOT in foods, ONLY in blood!
slide29
Heart disease is #1 cause of death in this country…what foods raise LDL (bad) cholesterol?
  • Are all fats bad for us?
  • Does fat make us fat?
  • Can a product be “cholesterol free” and still raise your LDL blood cholesterol?
the good vs bad fat
The “Good” vs “Bad” Fat
  • The Good: Unsaturated Fat
    • Monounsaturated
      • Lower harmful LDL cholesterol
      • Raise the helpful HDL cholesterol
    • Polyunsaturated
      • Lower harmful LDL cholesterol
      • Some provide healthful omega 3 fatty acids
  • The Bad: Saturated and Trans Fat
    • Saturated Fat
      • Raises harmful LDL cholesterol
    • Trans Fat
      • Increases harmful LDL cholesterol
      • Decreases helpful HDL cholesterol
how to eat to lower blood cholesterol
How to Eat to Lower Blood Cholesterol?
  • Fat
    • Recommended 20-35% of calories from fat
    • Low saturated fat (<10% of calories)
    • < 2 g trans fat per day. Choose products w/ 0 trans fat
    • Choose monounsaturated fats (olives, olive oil, avocado, nuts)
  • Choose fiber-rich foods (25-35 grams per day)
    • Binds bile and cholesterol
  • Include Omega-3 foods
    • Fatty fish 1-2 times/week
    • Walnuts, flaxseed
    • Fish supplements
  • Limit cholesterol to <300 mg per day