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ASSIGNMENTS. 1.) Read p.292-297 (Radioactivity) 2.) Complete “Types of Radiation” WS (Chap 10.1 Reading Organizer) 3.) p.297 Assessment Questions 1-9. Radioactivity . Notes Tim F. Rowbotham 2010. Radioactivity . Intro Video “Final Above Ground Atomic Tests”. Nuclear Stability .

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assignments

ASSIGNMENTS

1.) Read p.292-297 (Radioactivity)

2.) Complete “Types of Radiation” WS

(Chap 10.1 Reading Organizer)

3.) p.297 Assessment Questions 1-9

radioactivity

Radioactivity

Notes

Tim F. Rowbotham 2010

radioactivity1

Radioactivity

Intro Video

“Final Above Ground Atomic Tests”

nuclear stability

Nuclear Stability

In the nucleus, protons and neutrons are held together by the strong nuclear force. It overcomes the weaker electric force of repulsion.

nuclear instability

Nuclear Instability

But some atoms have unstable nuclei. The strong force is not great enough.

Their nuclei have a tendency to “fallapart” a bit due to this instability.

nuclear radiation

Nuclear Radiation

Unstable nuclei will jettison some particles or energy in order to become more stable.

nuclear radiation1

Nuclear Radiation

The particles or energy ejected from the nucleus of an atom is what we call nuclear radiation.

radioactive elements

Radioactive Elements

Radioactive elements are those atoms that have unstable nuclei, thus would eject particles or energy from their nuclei.

They are called radioactive isotopes, or radioisotopes for short.

radioactive decay

Radioactive Decay

When an atom gives off nuclear radiation, we call the process radioactivity or nucleardecay.

During nuclear decay, an atom may change into an entirely new element.

(Remember, the number of protons is what determines the type of atom.)

learning check

Learning Check

READY YOUR REMOTE

what causes radioactivity
What causes radioactivity?
  • A chemical reaction
  • An unstable nucleus
  • The earth’s magnetic field
  • The jet stream
an element that gives off radiation is called
An element that gives off radiation is called
  • an ion
  • a molecule
  • an isotope
  • a radioisotope
radioactivity2

Radioactivity

Video Clip - Radioactivity

nuclear decay products

Nuclear Decay Products

Through nuclear decay, an element can change to another element, so we refer to the initial radioisotope as the parent and the element it becomes as the daughter product.

PARENT  Radiation + DAUGHTER

sample parent daughters

Sample Parent & Daughters

PARENT  Radiation + DAUGHTER

Ra-226  α + Rn-222

U-238  α + Th-234

Th-234  β + Pa-234

C-14  β + N-14

K-42  β + Ar-42

learning check1

Learning Check

READY YOUR REMOTE

the new element formed after the decay of the radioisotope is referred to as the
The new element formed after the decay of the radioisotope is referred to as the
  • Parent element
  • Daughter element
  • Created element
  • Nuclear element
the radioisotope giving off radiation is referred to as the
The radioisotope giving off radiation is referred to as the
  • Parent element
  • Daughter element
  • Created element
  • Nuclear element
types of nuclear radiation

Types of Nuclear Radiation

There are 3 common types of nuclear radiation:

ALPHA PARTICLES

BETA PARTICLES

GAMMA RAYS

alpha decay

Alpha Decay

In alpha decay, an alpha particle is released from the nucleus.

An alpha particle is 2 protons attached to 2 neutrons.

It is the same as a helium nucleus.

alpha decay1

Alpha Decay

education.jlab.org/glossary/alphadecay.htm

alpha decay2

Alpha Decay

http://santasusana.org/pakelly/G%20Chemistry/changes_in_the_nucleus.htm

alpha decay3

Alpha Decay

http://www.umich.edu/~radinfo/introduction/lesson/alpha.htm

alpha decay4

Alpha Decay

http://www.hk-phy.org/resources/images/atomic01/?N=A

quick review

Quick Review

READY YOUR REMOTE

what does an alpha particle consist of
What does an alpha particle consist of?
  • An electron
  • A proton
  • A proton & a neutron
  • 2 protons & 2 neutrons
what causes radioactivity1
What causes radioactivity?
  • A chemical reaction
  • An unstable nucleus
  • The earth’s magnetic field
  • The jet stream
the new element formed after the decay of the radioisotope is referred to as the1
The new element formed after the decay of the radioisotope is referred to as the
  • Parent element
  • Daughter element
  • Created element
  • Nuclear element
assignments1

ASSIGNMENTS

1.) RETURN REMOTE

2.) Complete PACKET pages 10-11 “Radioactive Elements”

3.) Video: The Manhattan Project

video

VIDEO

Video: The Manhattan Project

quick review1

Quick Review

READY YOUR REMOTE

the new element formed after the decay of the radioisotope is referred to as the2
The new element formed after the decay of the radioisotope is referred to as the
  • Parent element
  • Daughter element
  • Created element
  • Nuclear element
what causes radioactivity2
What causes radioactivity?
  • A chemical reaction
  • An unstable nucleus
  • The earth’s magnetic field
  • The jet stream
an element that gives off radiation is called1
An element that gives off radiation is called
  • a radioisotope
  • an ion
  • a molecule
  • an isotope
quick review2

Quick Review

1.) VIDEO CLIP – Atomic Bomb

2.) Turn to page 3 of your notes

beta decay

Beta Decay

In beta decay, a beta particle is released from the nucleus.

A beta particle is really an electron.

During beta decay, a neutron changes into a proton and electron.

The proton stays and the electron is jettisoned from the nucleus.

beta decay1

Beta Decay

education.jlab.org/glossary/betadecay.htm

beta decay2

Beta Decay

http://santasusana.org/pakelly/G%20Chemistry/changes_in_the_nucleus.htm

beta decay3

Beta Decay

www.physics.isu.edu/adinfbeta.htm

beta decay4

Beta Decay

http://www.hk-phy.org/resources/images/atomic01/?N=A

what is a beta particle
What is a beta particle?
  • An electron
  • A proton
  • A proton & a neutron
  • 2 protons & 2 neutrons
gamma decay

Gamma Decay

In gamma decay, no particle is released by the nucleus – only energy!!

Gamma decay, by itself, does not change the atom into a new element.

Gamma decay often accompanies alpha or beta decay.

gamma decay1

Gamma Decay

http://santasusana.org/pakelly/G%20Chemistry/Gammae.gif

gamma decay2

Gamma Decay

http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/medicine/radiology/stafflist/staffitems/RADPRO%20Course/radiation.htm

gamma decay3

Gamma Decay

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Gamma_ray

http://www.odec.ca/projects/2007/pete7o2/Background.html

quick review3

Quick Review

READY REMOTES

what does an alpha particle consist of1
What does an alpha particle consist of?
  • An electron
  • A proton
  • A proton & a neutron
  • 2 protons & 2 neutrons
what does a beta particle consist of
What does a beta particle consist of?
  • An electron
  • A proton
  • A proton & a neutron
  • 2 protons & 2 neutrons
assignments2

ASSIGNMENTS

1.) RETURN REMOTE

2.) All About Radiation Worksheet

assignments3

ASSIGNMENTS

1.) Radioactivity Quiz

2.) All About Radiation Worksheet

3.) Video: Atomic Bomb – The End

radiation penetration

The types of nuclear radiation have differing abilities to penetrate matter.

Radiation Penetration

TYPE

ALPHA PARTICLE BETA PARTICLE

GAMMA RAY

or

How to block

Paper

Thin sheet of metal

3 ft of concrete

3 in of lead

effects of radiation

Effects of Radiation

Radiation that occurs naturally every day is called background radiation.

Nuclear radiation can ionize atoms – breaking apart the chemical bonds that hold molecules together.

detecting radiation

Detecting Radiation

One device that detects ionizing radiation is called a Geigercounter.

what is necessary to block a gamma ray
What is necessary to block a gamma ray?
  • A piece of paper
  • A piece of metal
  • 3 inches of concrete
  • 3 feet of concrete
assignments4

ASSIGNMENTS

1.) RETURN REMOTE

2.) PACKET page 12 – 15 (Nuclear Decay Eqns)

3.) Video: Devastating Radiation

civil defense

CIVIL DEFENSE

Video – Duck & Cover

quick review practice

QUICK REVIEW & PRACTICE

1.) Take out your periodic table

2.) READY YOUR REMOTE

when polonium 218 undergoes alpha decay what daughter element is produced
When polonium-218 undergoes alpha decay, what daughter element is produced?
  • Astatine-218
  • Radon-222
  • Lead-214
  • Bismuth-216
when protactinium 234 undergoes beta decay what daughter element is produced
When protactinium-234 undergoes beta decay, what daughter element is produced?
  • Uranium-234
  • Neptunium-238
  • Actinium-230
  • Thorium-230
what isotope is produced as a result of the alpha decay of uranium 234
What isotope is produced as a result of the alpha decay of uranium-234?
  • Plutonium-238
  • Neptunium-238
  • Actinium-230
  • Thorium-230
quick review practice1

QUICK REVIEW & PRACTICE

1.) Take out your periodic table

2.) READY YOUR REMOTE

when uranium 238 undergoes alpha decay what daughter element is produced
When uranium-238 undergoes alpha decay, what daughter element is produced?
  • Uranium-234
  • Neptunium-238
  • Actinium-230
  • Thorium-234
what isotope is produced as a result of the beta decay of carbon 14
What isotope is produced as a result of the beta decay of carbon-14?
  • Boron-14
  • Carbon-12
  • Nitrogen-14
  • Beryllium-10
assignments5

ASSIGNMENTS

VIDEO – Nuclear Power

notes

NOTES

p.6-7 Half-Life

rate of nuclear decay

Rate of Nuclear Decay

It is not possible to predict exactly when a particular radioactive atom will emit radiation.

However, it is possible to know howmany will decay over a certain amount of time.

half life

Half-Life

A half-life is the amount of time it takes for half of sample of the parent to decay.

(If you start with 100 atoms, it’s the time it takes for 50 to decay.)

This time differs depending on the radioisotope.

half life1

Half-Life

The number of atoms is cut in half once for every half-life.

half life2

Half-Life

ionactive.co.uk

half life5

If we start with 24 radioactive atoms...

Half-Life

How many are left after 1 half-life?

after 2 half-lives?

www.datamentor.org

half life of 3 hours

500 atoms after 1 half-life.

Half-Life of 3 Hours

250 atoms after 2 half-lives.

125 atoms after 3 half-lives.

http://ohioline.osu.edu/rer-fact/rer_20.html

half life of 3 hours1

6 hours =

2 half-lives.

Half-Life of 3 Hours

9 hours =

3 half-lives.

12 hours =

4 half-lives.

http://ohioline.osu.edu/rer-fact/rer_20.html

sample half lives

HALF-LIFE

1.23 seconds

12.26 years

5730 years

1600 years

4,500,000,000 yrs

Sample Half-Lives

RADIOISOTOPE

Potassium-37

Hydrogen-3

Carbon-14

Radium-226

Uranium-238

if you begin with 100 atoms of a radioisotope how many would be left after 2 half lives
If you begin with 100 atoms of a radioisotope, how many would be left after 2 half-lives?
  • 100
  • 50
  • 25
  • 0
if its half life was 10 minutes how long would it take for a radioisotope to decay from 100 to 25
If its half-life was 10 minutes, how long would it take for a radioisotope to decay from 100 to 25?
  • 10 min
  • 20 min
  • 30 min
  • 40 min
assignments6

ASSIGNMENTS

1.) RETURN REMOTE

2.) Pick up a copy of the Radioactive Decay of Candium WS

3.) Complete the Simulating Radioactive Decay WS (Graph)

4.) Prepare for Candium Directions

5.) Radioactive Decay & Half-Lives

quick review practice2

QUICK REVIEW & PRACTICE

1.) Take out your periodic table

2.) READY YOUR REMOTE

phosphorus 32 decays by beta decay into what element
Phosphorus-32 decays by beta decay into what element?
  • Sulfur-32
  • Silicon-32
  • Aluminum-30
  • Argon-34
if you begin with 120 atoms of a radioisotope how many would be left after 3 half lives
If you begin with 120 atoms of a radioisotope, how many would be left after 3 half-lives?
  • 60
  • 30
  • 15
  • 0
assignments7

ASSIGNMENTS

1.) RETURN REMOTE

2.) Pick up a copy of the Simulating Radioactive Decay WS

3.) Get with a partner

4.) Listen for Directions

5.) p.301 Assessment ?’s 1 – 7

radioactive decay half lives

1.)How much Ra-226 would be left after decay of 5 half-lives of 800g?

2.)How much time would that take? (HL = 1600 y)

Radioactive Decay & Half-lives

Use the tables in the back of your Radioactivity packet to help you answer these questions

3.) How much strontium-90 would be left after 4 half-lives of decay of 2000g?

4.) How long would this take? (HL = 28.1y)

quick review practice3

QUICK REVIEW & PRACTICE

1.) Take out your periodic table

2.) READY YOUR REMOTE

carbon 14 decays by beta decay into what element
Carbon-14 decays by beta decay into what element?
  • Nitrogen-14
  • Carbon-12
  • Oxygen-14
  • Beryllium-10
radioactive decay half lives1

Mar 21, 2011

1.)How much Co-60 would be left after decay of 3 half-lives of 1000 atoms?

2.)How much time would that take?

2.)How much daughter would be left?

Radioactive Decay & Half-lives

Use the tables in the back of your Radioactivity packet to help you answer these questions

4.) How much Iodine-131 would be left after 4 half-lives of decay of 4000 atoms?

5.) How long would this take?

6.) I-131 decays by beta decay into what element?

notes1

NOTES

Turn to p. 7 Notes

radioactive dating

Radioactive Dating

Since half-life is a fairly constant rate for each specific element, it is most often used for radioactive dating.

The most well-known type is radiocarbon dating which is often referred to as carbon dating.

transmutation

Transmutation

Transmutation is when one type of atom becomes a different type of atom.

It can only happen through a change in the nucleus.

It is a nuclear change.

artificial transmutation

Artificial Transmutation

Scientists perform artificial transmutations by bombarding nuclei with protons, or neutrons, or alpha particles.

Transuranium elements are created by artificial transmutation of smaller elements.

strong nuclear force

Strong nuclear force

Protons and neutrons are held in the nucleus by the strong nuclear force.

The strong force is greater than the electric force.

However, the electric force of repulsion increases much more with the addition of subatomic particles.

strong nuclear force1

Strong nuclear force

When the electric force of repulsion is greater than the strong force, the atom emits radiation.

lbl.gov

what two forces in the nucleus determine whether or not an atom emits radiation
What two forces in the nucleus determine whether or not an atom emits radiation?
  • Gravity & Electromagnetic force
  • Ionic & Covalent forces
  • Electromagnetic & Strong forces
  • String & Particle forces
transmutation does not take place in which of the following nuclear processes
Transmutation does not take place in which of the following nuclear processes?
  • Alpha decay
  • Beta decay
  • Gamma decay
assignments8

ASSIGNMENTS

1.) RETURN REMOTE

2.) Pick up a copy of Half-Life & complete one side (Easy/Hard)

3.) Complete p.16-17 of Packet “Nuclear Chemistry Half-Life Calculations”

quick review practice4

QUICK REVIEW & PRACTICE

1.) Take out your periodic table

2.) READY YOUR REMOTE

slide107
An alpha particle is ejected from the nucleus of an uranium-235 atom. What new element does it become?
  • Uranium-231
  • Thorium-231
  • Neptunium-235
  • Plutonium - 233
fission

Fission

Fission is the splitting of an atomic nucleus into two smaller atoms.

fission1

Fission

al-zen.com

fission2

Fission

A lot of energy is produced when this occurs.

How much?

E= mc2

http://library.thinkquest.org/C003730/index.php3?ID=18

law of conservation of mass

Law of Conservation of Mass

In chemical reactions, matter can not be created or destroyed, but can change form.

In nuclear reactions, however, matter can be converted to energy.

law of conservation of mass and energy

Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy

This law is modified when dealing with nuclear reactions.

According to the law of conservation of mass and energy, the total amount of mass and energy remains constant.

mass energy equation

Mass-Energy Equation

E= mc2

How are mass and energy related?

c = the speed of light

c = 299,792,458 meters per second

fission chain reaction

Fission Chain Reaction

A lot of energy is produced from a fission reaction, however, just one atom has a tiny amount of mass so releases little energy.

A chainreaction must be produced.

This happens when neutrons released during fission, hit and split other atoms.

uses of fission

Uses of Fission

Nuclear Weapons

http://www.adapage.com/magazzino/Photo%20Bombe%20Atomiche.htm

uses of fission1

Uses of Fission

Nuclear Power

fusion

Fusion

Fusion is combining two atoms to form a larger nucleus.

alternativeenergyrevealed.com

http://mosaic.cnfolio.com/B101CW2007A166

uses of fusion

Uses of Fusion

Fusion requires extremely high temperatures.

It occurs naturally in the sun.

neoteo.com

uses of fusion1

Uses of Fusion

We can also produce fusion in a thermonuclear weapon, which is even more powerful.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/7969902@N07/510672745/

in what type of nuclear reaction is the nucleus of an atom split
In what type of nuclear reaction is the nucleus of an atom split?
  • Fission
  • Fusion
  • Gamma Decay
  • Ionic bonding
there are 800 atoms of a radioisotope how many atoms would there be after 4 half lives of decay
There are 800 atoms of a radioisotope. How many atoms would there be after 4 half-lives of decay?
  • 400
  • 200
  • 100
  • 50
the equation e m c 2 means what
The equation E = m c2 means what?
  • Energy can neither be created nor destroyed
  • Matter can be converted into energy
  • Everything is made out of matter
  • Chemical reactions release a lot of energy
assignments9

ASSIGNMENTS

1.) RETURN REMOTE

2.) Pick up a copy of Half-Lives / Nuclear Reaction WS & complete at least one side

3.) Complete p.18-19 of Packet “Half-Life Worksheet”

4.) Test tomorrow – Packets due!!

videos

VIDEOS

1.) A is for Atom

2.)

3.)

4.)