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The Impact of Modernity on Culture. Lecture 2. Magritte, The Human Condition (1933). The Age of Reason. Break with ‘The Great Chain of Being’. New forms of expression Political Commentary & Satire. Newspapers. The Rise of the Novel. Say first, of God above , or man below ,

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the impact of modernity on culture

The Impact of Modernity on Culture

Lecture 2

Magritte, The Human Condition (1933)

the age of reason
The Age of Reason
  • Break with ‘The Great Chain of Being’
  • New forms of expression
    • Political Commentary & Satire


  • The Rise of the Novel
from alexander pope an essay on man 1733
Say first, of God above, or man below,

What can we reason, but from what we know?

Of man what see we, but his station here,

From which to reason, or to which refer?

Through worlds unnumber'd though the God be known,

'Tis ours to trace him only in our own.

He, <who ….(i. e. God)>,

May tell why Heav'n has made us as we are.


Is the great chain <….> upheld by God, or thee (i.e. Man)?

From Alexander Pope, An Essay on Man (1733)
the rise of the novel
The Rise of the Novel

Gulliver's Travels (1726)

  • Jonathan Swift,

Robinson Crusoe (1719)

Moll Flanders (1722)

  • Daniel Defoe,

Tristram Shandy (1759-67)

  • Laurence Sterne,

Joseph Andrews (1742)

Tom Jones (1749)

  • Henry Fielding,
  • Tobias Smollett,

The Adventures of Roderick Random (1748)

The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle (1751)

Humphry Clinker (1771)

the rise of the novel5
The Rise of the Novel

Frontispiece for

The Life and Opinions


Tristram Shandy,


Third ed., 1760.

the romantics
The Romantics
  • Blake
  • (Wordsworth and Coleridge)
  • (Keats)
  • Byron and Shelley
  • Walter Scott
percy bysshe shelley 1792 1822
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)
  • The Revolt of Islam
  • Prometheus Unbound
  • Ode to the West Wind
  • Ode to Liberty
  • Song to the Men of England
  • The Masque of Anarchy
  • The Triumph of Life
the victorians 1



The Brontë Sisters

George Eliot

Charles Dickens

The Victorians (1)
the victorians 2


The Way of all Flesh


The Tragic Comedians


Tess of the d’Urbervilles

Jude the Obscure

Thomas Hardy

  • Robert Tressel,
    • - The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists
The Victorians (2)

Some characteristics

  • T. S. Eliot

Lovesong of J. Alfred Prufrock

  • George Bernard Shaw, Plays Pleasant and Unpleasant
  • James Joyce, Ulysses
in art
…in Art

Magritte, The Treachery of Images (1931)

Gertrude Stein

the war poets

Rupert Brooke

If I should die, think only this of me

That there’s some corner of a foreign field

That is for ever England

Lost poets

The War Poets
  • Siegfried Sassoon
  • Wilfred Owen
  • Robert Graves
  • Isaac Rosenberg
  • H. G. Wells, War of the Worlds
  • Aldous Huxley, Brave New World
  • George Orwell, 1984; Animal Farm
  • Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451
  • John Le Carré [Collected works]
the angry young men
The Angry Young Men
  • John Osborne
  • John Braine
  • Arnold Wesker
  • Shelagh Delaney
  • Stan Barstow
  • Alan Sillitoe
  • John Wain
  • Kingsley Amis
  • Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Germaine Greer (Australian)
  • Erica Jong (American)
  • Margaret Drabble
  • Margaret Forster
  • Fay Weldon
  • Doris Lessing