Judaism, Islam, & Christianity A Comparative Look at the Three Monotheistic Religions of the World
Objectives: Christianity • Christianity: • Identify important leaders/prophets of Christianity • Describe the values & beliefs of Christianity • Explain the significance of Christmas & Easter
Christianity… • Christianity is a major world religion, • A“Western” religion • People who believe in Christianity are known as Christians • It is based on belief that Jesus of Nazareth is “Christ” • The Messiah & the Son of God.
The History • Important Leaders: • Abraham – Founder & 1st person to be monotheistic. • Jesus of Nazareth • Messiah of Christianity • Performed miracles & spread a message of peace to the people • 12 Apostles • Most trusted followers of Christ What Is Christianity?
Christians believe.. • Monotheism • In one God, creator of the universe • TheBible: • official collection of books • in two parts: both Old Testament & New Testament • Cities of Interest: • Jerusalem, Rome, Constantinople
Christians are… • The largest world religion today • 2.1 billion (2100 million) • Europe, Latin America, North America • Weekly Services • Led by a priest or a pastor • Sabbath – Sunday • Place of Worship: Church • Major Christian Branches: • Orthodox • (Roman) Catholic • Protestant
Significant events • in a Christian’s life : • Baptism • by which one is admitted to membership of the Christian Church • 1st Communion • It is a holy time of worship when Christians come remember and celebrate what Christ did • Confirmation • rite of initiation . • mature statement of faith by an already baptized person
Holidays • Christmas • Celebrates the birth of Christ • Month of celebration: Advent • Easter • Emphasizes his resurrection • Month of celebration: Lent
To Do: What Is Christianity?
Bell Work • Pair Share the 1st 2 columns in your chart • Christianity • Judaism
Judaism… • “A 4000 year old tradition with ideas about what it means to be human and how to make the world a holy place” (Rabbi Harold Kushner, To Life) • The people are known as Jews
Objectives: Judaism • Judaism: • Identify important leaders/prophets of Judaism • Describe the values & beliefs of Judaism • Explain any traditions unique to Judaism • Explain the significance of Yom Kippur, Rosh Hashanah & Hanukah
The History… • Founded around 2000BC • The Important Leaders: • Abraham (founder) • Founded Israel for his followers • Moses • prophet • Received the 10 Commandments from God • Led the Jews out of slavery • “Promised Land” (The Land of Israel), with the major city being Jerusalem
The History Cont’d… • Saul- • Considered the 1st Hebrew King • Ruled after the 1st Exodus (enslavement) • David- • Created the capital of Jerusalem • Solomon- • Glorified Jerusalem with temples
As a faith, Jews Believe… • Monotheism • In one God, creator of the universe • Known as Yahweh • In the Torah – written law • first five books of the Bible (Old Testament) • Talmud (“Oral Law”) how to apply God’s Law in everyday life through: • Dietary rules (Kosher) • Dress and other symbols • Observance of Holy days
Jews are… • 14 – 15 million in worldwide population • North America, Europe, Israel • Weekly Services • Led by a Rabbi • the Sabbath (Saturday) • In a Synagogue or Temple • Divided in practice: • Orthodox – most traditional • Reformed – most liberal • Conservative – • It seeks to conserve the traditional elements of Judaism
Significant events Life cycle celebrations: • Bar/Bat Mitzvah – full adult status and responsibility within the religion • Marriage - "Be fruitful and multiply" (Gen. 1:22) • Death – funerals, mourning, and memorials
The Jewish Holidays: • Rosh Hashanah • Jewish New Year • Time of renewal as the new year begins… • Yom Kippur • is the holiest day of the year ; occurs 10 days after Rosh Hashanah • Time of atonement and reflection • Jews traditionally observe this holy day with a 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer
The Jewish Holidays: • Hanukah, the “Festival of Lights” • Origins during the Roman occupation • Celebrates the miracle they endured during the Roman siege of their stronghold. • Passover • Origins are pre-1st Exodus • Occurs in the spring • Adhere to dietary restrictions
How is Judaism related to Christianity? • Judaism predates Christianity • it is the foundation of Christianity but is not a part of it • Jesus was Jewish, as were his followers and the Apostles • The Jews who believed Jesus was the Messiah became Christians • The Jews that did not believe that he was the messiah are the Jewish population
Judaism Quiz • People who practice • Deity • Document • Founder • City • Place of worship • Religious leader • Sabbath • Yom Kippur • Where in the world
3 – 2 – 1 3 – DIFFERENCES – Judaism & Christianity 2 – SIMILARITIES – Judaism & Christianity 1 – FACT ABOUT ISLAM
Objectives - Islam • Islam: • Identify important leaders/prophets of Islam • Describe the values & beliefs of Islam • List the 5 Pillars of Islam • Explain the significance of the important holiday: Ramadan • Describe the relevance of Mecca on the history of Islam
The History • Important People • Muhammad • The great prophet of Islam • Born in Mecca in 570 AD • In 610 AD the Angel Gabriel informed Muhammad that he was the chosen one to spread Allah’s message. • Must inform the people of the works of Christians & Jews too, including: Jesus, Moses, David, Isaac & Abraham. There cannot be an image of Muhammad because Muslims do not depict him in any visual way.
The History • At age 40 – he had a vision of the angel Gabriel ordering him to teach the word of God (Allah) • This was in conflict of with Mecca’s citizens – they were polytheistic • Left Mecca for Medina – the hijrah • Hijrah means ‘great emigration’. • In 630 - reentered Mecca with his followers • In 632 – Muhammad dies in Jerusalem after trying to spread Islam west. • Cities to Know: • Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem
Muhammad’s Death The Dome of the Rock: the location of where Muhammad ascended into heaven.
Muhammad’s Death Cont’d… This is the Prophet’s Mosque, located in Medina, Saudi Arabia. It is where Muhammad is buried.
As a faith, Muslims believe • Monotheism • In one God, creator of the universe • Known as Allah • Holy Book is the Qur’an • God’s revelations to Muhammad • Five Pillars of Islam
Five Pillars of Islam • 1 – Profession of faith • There is no God but God and Muhammad is His prophet. • 2 – Pray five times a day facing Mecca • 3 – Give alms – money to the poor
Five Pillars of Islam • 4 – Fast during the month of Ramadan – 9th month of the year • No eating or drinking during daylight hours • No pork or alcohol • 5 –Hajj to Mecca • Hajj (Religious journey) • Kaaba Stone • Gift to Abraham from Gabriel • Housed in the Kaaba
In Mecca during the pilgrimage www.thefaithclub.com 28
True or False • Most Muslims are Arabs who live in the Middle East • FALSE • Reality: • Of more than 1.5 billion Muslims worldwide, only about 1/5 are Arabs.
Try to guess • Which country has more Muslims than any other country in the world? • Answer • Indonesia - with over 200 million Muslims. • Note: The U.S. has about 5 million Muslims.
Muslims are • 1.5 billion in worldwide population • Middle East, Central Asia, Indonesia, and North America • Led by a Imam in services • Friday is the day of worship • In a Mosque • Divided • split into two factions after the Umayyads killed Muhammad's grandson, Husayn • Shi’ites – believe that Husayn was the rightful leader • Sunni – believe that the Umayyads are the rightful leaders
Mosque in Medina, Saudi Arabia http://islamicbooks.info/H-21-Madh'habs 30
Holiday • Ramadan • Month of fasting during daylight hours • When the 1st verses of the Qu’ran were revealed to Muhammad by Allah • YouTube - 5. The Concept of Islam: Zakat Fasting and Hajj (6 minutes)
True or False Muslims believe it is o.k. to kill civilians in a holy war (“jihad”). False Reality: Only Muslim extremists believe this. 11
True or False Most Muslim women wear veils over their faces and are treated very badly. 13
False REALITY: Muslim women have many different styles of dress. (Very few cultures require women to cover their faces.) The treatment of women varies from country to country and family to family. Some Muslim countries, like Pakistan, have had female prime ministers. The U.S. has never had a female president. 14