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Elements of Surveying (CEL271). Gazala Habib Dept. of Civil Engg. Contact: Room No. 303, Block-4 E-mail: gazalahabib@gmail.com Phone: 1192 (Office). Books. Surveying by S K Duggal, Tata McGraw Hill, Vol 1 Surveying: Theory and practices, S. S Bhavikatti

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elements of surveying cel271

Elements of Surveying (CEL271)

Gazala Habib

Dept. of Civil Engg.


Room No. 303, Block-4

E-mail: gazalahabib@gmail.com

Phone: 1192 (Office)

  • Surveying by S K Duggal, Tata McGraw Hill, Vol 1
  • Surveying: Theory and practices, S. S Bhavikatti
  • Surveying and levelling by N. N Basak
  • Plane surveying A M Chandra
    • Surveying (Vol-1) by B. C. Punmia, Ashok K. Jain and Arun K. Jain
  • Lab timing for all group: 2-4 pm (Monday-Friday)
  • Room Number: Block IV, 335
  • Contact: Mr. Rajeev Sharma (Phone: 6442)
attendance policy
Attendance policy
  • All students must attend all classes. Attendance record will be maintained and will be periodically uploaded through the UG web-site.
  • Lectures: 70 marks for attendance, surprise quizzes, homework, assignments and exams
  • Laboratory: 30 marks for attendance, surprise quizzes, notebook, viva
  • If attendance of the student is greater than 90%, result of the best three quizzes will be considered else average of all quizzes will be considered.
  • If a student’s attendance is less than 75%, the student will be awarded one grade less than the actual grade that he(she) has earned. For example, a student who has got A grade but has attendance less than 75% will be awarded A- grade.
attendance policy contd
Attendance Policy …Contd.
  • If a student has a valid medical certificate (from IITD hospital or a registered medical practitioner) because of which he/she has missed an evaluation component the compensation will be decided and put on notice board.
  • If a student has missed any of the minors due to medical reasons or family emergency alternatives will be arranged. For example if a person misses minor-1 because of health problem he/she should produce the medical certificate immediately after re-joining the class and the re-minor will be conducted last working day of next week after minor-1.
  • If a student misses Major examination he should apply for an I-grade or an extended-I grade. HOD will approve I-grade based on his/her assessment of the situation. In that case examination must be conducted within 10 days of completion of the majors. Dean, UGS will award the extended-I grade and in that case examination must be conducted within the first ten working days of the next semester.
marks policy
Marks policy
  • Full marks will be awarded for correct procedure and correct answer. 3/4 marks for correct procedure but wrong answer. Zero marks for wrong procedure and correct answer.
  • All evaluation components including Minor and Major scripts will be shown to the students. Within 7-15 days after exam along with the model answer.
  • The date and time for showing script will be displayed in the notice board. The schedule will be group wise.
  • Grading of a course will be finalized and displayed after following the process of moderation.
  • What is surveying?

Surveying may be defined as the science of determining the position, in three dimensions, of natural and man-made features on or beneath the surface of the Earth. These features may then be represented in analog form as a contoured map, plan or chart, or in digital form as a three dimensional mathematical model stored in the computer.

objective of course
Objective of course
  • To understand the basic concept of surveying
  • Apply the surveying concept and equipments in real life
  • You should be able to use a set of tools to solve the problems in an optimal way
  • You should be able to understand the pitfalls (sources of error) to avoid them
application of surveying in civil engineering
Application of surveying in civil Engineering
  • The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as construction of highways, bridges, tunnels, dams etc are based upon surveying measurements.
  • Project of any magnitude is constructed along the lines and points established by surveying. Thus, surveying is a basic requirement for all Civil Engineering projects.
  • Other principal works in which surveying is primarily utilized are
  • •  to fix the national and state boundaries;
  • •  to chart coastlines, navigable streams and lakes;
  • •  to establish control points
  • •  to execute hydrographic and oceanographic charting and mapping; and
  • •  to prepare topographic map of land surface of the earth.

Levelling Staff

Tilting Level

Dumpy Level

  • Telescope is fixed cannot be tilted
  • or moved
  • Telescope can be tilted slightly about its horizontal axis with the help of tilting screw.
  • The line of collimation is made horizontal for each observation with the help of tilting screw
  • Instrument can be levelled automatically within a certain tilt range

Digital level

sewer projects
Sewer Projects
  • Firm under contract
  • Preliminary studies
    • General layout map
    • Buildings located on general layout
    • Treatment site search
    • Preliminary paper layout
      • Make sure every building and potential building site can be served
      • Manhole system placed on general layout
sewer projects15
Sewer Projects
  • Preliminary filed work
    • Preliminary profiles
      • BM system established
      • Manholes set
      • Profiles run
      • Basement elevations acquired
    • Design mapping
      • Final plans
    • Treatment area
    • Boundary survey
    • Complete topo of area
sewer projects16
Sewer Projects
  • Design process
    • Sewer line design
      • Preliminary profiles drawn
        • Basement elevations plotted
      • Manholes placed on profiles
      • Slope between manholes computed
      • Problem areas – alternate service routes selected
        • Manholes set in field
        • Profiles run
        • Revert to 3A
sewer projects17
Sewer Projects
  • Treatment plant design
    • Topo map prepared
    • Type system verified
    • Treatment system sized based on existing and projected population
    • System designed
  • Plans drafted
    • Sewer plans normally prepared on plan/profile sheets
sewer projects18
Sewer Projects
      • Treatment plant drawn using plan sheets and cross sections
      • Quantities computed
      • Specifications
        • Written instructions on how every item to be built
        • Include contract documents and bid proposal
  • Bidding procedure
    • Notice of bid advertised on local paper
    • Pre-bid meeting
sewer projects19
Sewer Projects
  • Bidding
    • Each contractor submits sealed bid
    • Bids opened and tabulated
    • Engineer reviews proposals
    • Engineer recommends which bid to accept
  • Contract awarded
sewer projects20
Sewer Projects
  • Construction
    • Surveying
      • Contractor required to hire surveyor for stakeout
      • Manholes referenced
      • Staking methods
        • Batter board method
        • Laser method
      • Measurement of quantities
  • As Built
water distribution systems
Water distribution systems
  • Put under contract – water district formed
  • Preliminary studies
    • General layout prepared
    • Water district signs up users
    • Water source located
    • Waterlines placed on general layout
      • Hydraulic gradient plotted from USGS topo
water distribution systems22
Water distribution systems
    • Pump station and water storage sites
      • Property acquired by perpetual easement or purchased
      • Boundary survey performed for each site
      • Topo each site
  • Field work
    • Plan preparation
      • Normally photogrammetrically
        • Flight plan sent on general layout
        • Take photos and post measure horizontal control
        • Plan sheets marked on photos using template
water distribution systems23
Water distribution systems
    • Waterlines placed on plan sheets
  • Crossings and easements
    • Every location where waterline crosses paved road, railroad – has to be topo, cross sectioned, and tied to nearest stationing or milepost
    • Crossings plotted and permits applied for – railroads, state DOT, township and county roads
    • Easement descriptions prepared
water distribution systems24
Water distribution systems
  • Final design
    • All waterlines and appurtenances on plans, easements, acquired and in docket form, rock excavation on plans
      • Quantities computed
      • System driven to make sure nothing missed
    • Tanks and P.S.
      • Designed and sized
      • Quantities computed
water distribution systems25
Water distribution systems
  • Bidding
  • Construction
    • Water distribution system
      • Waterline stakeout
        • Each easement plotted on plans
        • Crossings as permitted staked
      • Quantities
    • Tanks and PS
      • Foundation staked
      • Must be checked for plumb
  • As built
architectural projects
Architectural Projects
  • Firm Under contract
  • Preliminary fieldwork
    • Boundary survey
      • Description provided
      • Fieldwork
        • Monument search, traverse site
        • Compute data and analysis
        • Final stakeout
      • Easement and encroachment search
      • Plat of survey
architectural projects27
Architectural Projects
  • Topo – grid method most common
    • Grid pattern 25’ – 100’
    • BM – USGS
    • Entire tract topo and adjacent areas to access
    • Utilities – nearest tied in
    • Include all objects above, on or below, ground
    • Prepare topo map
    • Field check map
architectural projects28
Architectural Projects
  • Construction
    • Control
      • If large building – you may want to establish TBM’s on control Mon.
    • Stakeout
      • Convert architects dimensions to engineering
      • Layout clearing and excavation limits
      • Layout underground piping
architectural projects29
Architectural Projects
    • Layout footings and foundations
    • Layout building corners and supports
    • Locate roads and parking areas
    • Locate lighting and other project extras
  • As built
structure and terrain movement
Structure and Terrain Movement
  • Used to monitor:
    • Movement of buildings ( x, y, and z)
    • Movement of bridges
    • Movement of dams
    • Landslides and earthquakes
    • Amusement park rides
structure and terrain movement31
Structure and Terrain Movement
  • Description – error within system must be less than smallest movement to be observed
  • 2 groups of monuments installed
    • Reference or control monuments
    • Deformation or movement monuments
structure and terrain movement32
Structure and Terrain Movement
  • Control – generally concrete pillars extending 3-4 feet out of ground with tribrach permanently attached
  • Movement monuments – for earthquake or landslide may be similar deep monuments
structure and terrain movement33
Structure and Terrain Movement
  • Equipment:
    • GPS
    • Turned angles
    • Angle/Distance
    • Leveling
classification of surveying based on function
Classification of surveying: Based on function
  • Primary division based on shape of the earth
    • Geodic survey: if the area surveyed is more than 1000 km2 geodic surveying must be employed
    • Plane survey
  • Classification based on function of survey
    • Control surveying: establishing the horizontal and vertical positions of widely spaced control points using geodic method.
    • Land surveying: to determine the boundaries and areas of parcel of land.
    • City surveying: urban planning
    • Topographic surveys: depiction of topography of a region. Including natural and man made features
    • Engineering survey: for laying out engineering projects.
    • Route survey: planning designing and execution of highways, railways, canals, pipelines etc.
    • Construction surveys: required to establish points lines, grades and for staking out engineering works after the plans have been prepared and the structural design has n=been done.
classification of surveying based on function35
Classification of surveying: Based on function
  • Astronomic survey: are conducted for the determination of latitudes, longitudes, azimuths, local time etc. for various places by observing heavenly bodies such as suns and stars.
  • Geological survey: to determine the strata of the earth’s crust for geological studies.
  • Archaeological surveys: unearthing relics of antiquity
  • Mine surveys: exploration of mineral deposits, and to guide tunnelling and other operations associated with mining.
  • Satellite surveys: to establish intercontinental, interdatum and interisland geodic ties over the world by making satellite observations.
  • Military surveys: conducted for military purpose.
classification of surveying based on instruments
Classification of surveying: Based on instruments
  • Chain survey: only linear measurements are made with chain or tape no angular measurements are taken
  • Compass survey: horizontal angles are measured with the help of magnetic compass
  • Plane table survey: The map is prepared in the field itself by determining the directions of various lines making linear measurements, and plotting the details on paper using a plane table
  • Levelling survey: this type of survey is used to determine the elevations and relative heights of the points with the help of instrument known as level.
  • Theodolite survey: theodolite survey is primarily used in traversing and triangulation for providing controls. The horizontal and vertical angles are measured with the help of theodolite.
  • Tacheometric survey: a special type of theodolite known as tacheometer, is used to determine horizontal and vertical distances directly.
  • Photogrammetric survey: measurements are made with help photograph.
  • EDM Survey: linear measurements are made with the help of EDM instruments.
principles of surveying
Principles of surveying
  • Fixing the points in relation to points already fixed http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-ROORKEE/SURVEYING/modules/module1/htmlpage/9.htm#
principle of surveying
Principle of surveying
  • Working from whole to part:
  • to localize the errors and
  • to control the accumulation of errors.
    • Establish primary control points with high precision
    • Establish secondary and tertiary control points within the system boundary and form triangle/rectangle may be with less precision.
    • This will help in localizing the error and to control the propagation of error.